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Chapter Fourteen . Adolescence: Biosocial Development. Puberty Begins. Period of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation typically completed three to four years after first visible signs Person attains adult size, shape, and sexual potential.

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Chapter Fourteen

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    1. Chapter Fourteen Adolescence: Biosocial Development

    2. Puberty Begins Period of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation typically completed three to four years after first visible signs Person attains adult size, shape, and sexual potential

    3. Puberty begins with hormone production in brain hormones from hypothalamus trigger production in pituitary glands in turn this triggers hormone production in adrenal glands and sex glands (gonads) To regulate body functions and changes, many hormones follow this route, the HPA(hypothalamus/pituitary/adrenal) axis Hormones

    4. At puberty, the pituitary gland activates the gonads, or sex glands (ovaries in females, testes in males) One hormone in particular, GnRH, causes increased production of estrogen in females and testosterone in males Hormones, cont.

    5. Direct Effects on Emotions Rapidly increasing hormone levels precede rapid arousal of emotions Hormonal levels correlate with quick shifts in emotional extremes For boys this increase precipitates thoughts about sex and masturbation For girls hormonal changes during menstrual cycle produce mood changes

    6. Indirect Effects on Emotions Hormone levels produce visible signs of sexual maturation, which in turn create expectations of new maturity social responses to biological signs trigger adolescent moods and reactions One’s culture affects thoughts of sex first sexual intercourse occurs at different ages in different cultures

    7. Normally, body changes begin to appear between ages 8 and 14 It’s hard to prepare without knowing what changes will be and when they’ll appear individual may grow a little taller and put on some weight The Timing of Puberty

    8. Sex, Genes, and Weight Girls on average are about two years ahead of boys Menarche and spermarche Timing can be affected by genetics, ethnicity, and body fat individuals with stockier builds experience puberty earlier chronic malnutrition limits fat, thus delaying puberty by several years

    9. Stress in Families Family conflict may cause earlier onset of puberty or irregular periods stress levels affect hormone production stress probably affects hormones causing puberty Stress hypothesis gained support when researchers identified two factors influencing early puberty conflicted relationships with family unrelated man living in the home

    10. Too Early or Too Late Early-maturing girl may be teased and is embarrassed Age of menarche is a strong predictor of age at first intercourse Late-maturing boys may be shunned Early-maturing boys are socially popular and often sports heroes

    11. Too Early or Too Late, cont. • Low self-esteem of off-time maturation lingers • Early-maturing girls become mothers sooner • Late-maturing boys marry later and are less likely to be leaders

    12. Defined as a sudden, uneven, and rather unpredictable jump in the size of almost every part of the body The Growth Spurt

    13. Increase occurs in bone length and density feet and fingers lengthen, then arms and legs, then torso Weight gain becomes rapid Height increase follows Timing: for girls, 10–14; for boys, 12–16 Wider, Taller, Then Stronger

    14. Other Body Changes Organ growth torso grows as internal organs grow lungs triple in weight and size (breathing rate decreases) heart doubles in size (heart rate decreases), total volume of blood increases physical endurance in exercise increases lymphoid system decreases in size hormones may cause changes in oil, sweat, and odor glands of the skin eyes change—may cause nearsightedness

    15. Primary sex characteristics—parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction: vagina, uterus, testes, penis Primary sex organs grow girls: uterus grows, vaginal lining thickens menarche—first menstrual period boys: testes, penis, scrotal sac enlarge spermarche—first ejaculation of seminal fluid Primary Sex Characteristics

    16. SecondarySexCharacteristics Secondary sex characteristics—body characteristics not directly involved in reproduction but indicating sexual maturity breasts females accumulate fat in both sexes, diameter of areola around nipples increases hair voice lowers, especially in males body hair becomes coarser and darker new hair growth in armpits and in genital area

    17. Adolescence is generally healthy time Minor childhood illnesses less common; major adult diseases rare Health of adolescents is more likely to be harmed by their own actions Hazards to Health

    18. Need for good, healthy calories is greater due to growth spurt many adolescents become fat and flabby—due not to excess food, but lack of exercise Adolescents generally eat enough but not the right foods snack with friends too much fat, sugar, empty calories; too little calcium Poor Nutrition

    19. Poor Nutrition, cont. • only one in five U.S. high school seniors consumes RDI of five servings of fruits and vegetables • inadequate milk consumption is troubling, as calcium is major contributor to bone growth • one-half adult bone mass acquired during adolescence

    20. Poor Nutrition, cont. • fewer than half of all teenagers consume RDI of iron • females do not get enough iron, while menstrual cycle depletes iron; therefore, may become anemic

    21. Poor Nutrition, cont. • Nutritional deficits sometimes arise from distorted body image • Body Image—person’s concept of how his or her body appears • developing a healthy body image is an integral part of becoming an adult • negative-self appraisal has a major impact on self-esteem

    22. With puberty occurring earlier than it used to in the United States, and marriage later, long period between first sexual urges and marriage More than 25 percent of teens are sexually active by age 14; about one-half active by high school graduation Sex Too Soon

    23. Sexually active teenagers have higher rates of most common STDs—gonorrhea, genital herpes, syphilis, and chlamydia—than any other age group Risk of exposure to HIV virus increases if a person is already infected with other STDs has more than one partner in a year does not use condoms during intercourse Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    24. Younger adolescents within two years of beginning menarche are at increased risk for many complications because their bodies have not matured risks include spontaneous abortion, eclampsia, stillbirth, C-section, low birth weight women who have given birth before age 16 tend to be shorter and sicker as adults and live less long Teenage Pregnancies

    25. Teenage Pregnancies, cont. • Older adolescents are at less physical risk but have their own set of problems • after birth of baby, educational and vocational achievement slowed down • babies have a higher risk of prenatal and birth complications than other babies • problems are linked to culture and cohort

    26. Sexual Abuse Defined as the use of unconsenting person for one’s own sexual pleasure Child sexual abuse—activity that arouses the adult and excites, shames, or confuses a person under age 16 abusers of adolescent girls—usually male relative or friend abusers of adolescent boys—usually male not in family

    27. Drug abuse—ingestion of drug so that it impairs user’s well-being Drug addiction—dependence on a drug or behavior that makes user feel physically or psychologically at ease Drug use—ingestion of a drug regardless of amount or effect Nations differ considerably in use in-laws and culture influence usage religion influences usage Drug Use and Abuse

    28. Link between their occasional use and later drug abuse and addiction repeatedly found characteristics: violence, early sexual activity, and school failure drug use both cause and symptom of adolescent problem The Gateway Drugs

    29. The Gateway Drugs, cont. • Tobacco • decreases food consumption • interferes with absorption of nutrients • reduces fertility • most physically addictive drug of all • Alcohol • more harmful in adolescence • correlates with abnormal brain development

    30. The Gateway Drugs, cont. • Marijuana • seriously slows down thinking processes, especially memory and abstract reasoning • may cause lack of motivation and indifference toward future

    31. Almost every teenager tries one of the gateway drugs by high school graduation, most have tried all three experimentation happening earlier than previously Experimentation and regular use daily use and abuse increases throughout late adolescence Patterns of Adolescent Drug Use

    32. National culture makes a difference In Europe, adolescents show increased drug use adolescent girls in United States as likely to smoke as adolescent boys; in Asia and African few women smoke drug use changes in frequency, composition, mode of delivery, and in form Cultural Differences in Drug Use

    33. Chapter Fifteen Adolescence: Cognitive Development

    34. Basic cognitive skills continue to emerge Logic emerges Intuitive thinking becomes quicker and more compelling Intellectual Advances

    35. Every basic skill of information process continues to develop Brain maturation continues myelination is ongoing, so reaction time shorter prefrontal cortex becomes more densely packed and more efficient helps in planning, analyzing, and being able to pursue goals Language mastery improves More and Better Cognition

    36. Piaget’s formal operational thought, characterized by ability to think logically about abstract ideas qualitatively different from children’s thoughts New Logical Abilities

    37. Important characteristics hypothetical thought thinking about possibilities deductive and inductive reasoning deductive reasoning—reasoning from general principle via logical steps to specific conclusion inductive reasoning—reasoning specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion Hypothetical-Deductive Thought

    38. Hypothetical thought and deductive reasoning not always demonstrated in adolescence, nor acquired by everyone Two modes of information processing advance during adolescence analytic thought (adolescents don’t always like to use this type of thinking) intuitive thought (ideas are discovered and applied) More Intuitive, Emotional Thought

    39. More Intuitive, Emotional Thought, cont. • Two pathways in the brain may lead to “two-track” thinking

    40. Characteristic of adolescent thinking that sometimes leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others and to believe that their thoughts feelings and experiences are unique Adolescent Egocentrism

    41. Adolescent Egocentrism, cont. • Invincibility fable • adolescents feel they are immune to the laws of mortality and probability (and nature) • they therefore take all kinds of risks • Personal fable • adolescents imagine their own lives as mythical or heroic • they see themselves destined for fame or fortune

    42. Adolescent Egocentrism, cont. • Imaginary audience • adolescents fantasize about how others will react (opinions of onlookers) • they assume everyone else judges appearance(s) • they’re not at ease with social world

    43. Adolescent Egocentrism, cont. • The various forms of adolescent egocentrism are the most obvious forms of intuitive, emotional thought • Adolescent egocentrism is not necessarily destructive • “may signal growth toward cognitive maturity” and personal adaptation

    44. Intuitive thinking is apparent when adolescents are not judging themselves It is quick and emotional and can be wrong Cognitive economy as knowledge base increases, thinking is quicker both analysis and intuition become more readily and powerfully available Intuitive Conclusions

    45. Adolescence is a time for personal decisions and independent choices with far-reaching consequences Adolescents think about possibilities, not practicalities; thus, few decide important matters rationally egocentrism and intuitive thinking make it hard to analyze and plan ahead Adolescent Decision Making

    46. Reasons adults try to protect teenagers from poor judgment consequences of risk taking are more serious the younger the person is adolescent choices are long-lasting adolescents overate the joys of the moment and ignore future costs Weighing Risks and Benefits

    47. Weighing Risks and Benefits, cont. • Every decision requires weighing risk against opportunity • Consequences are discounted, probability miscalculated, and their future put at risk • Sex differences • boys more likely to take risks • girls admire risk-taking boys

    48. Few adolescents can or should decide their future career Courses studied and leisure choices do make a difference Making Decisions School, Jobs, and Sex

    49. Graduation from high school confers many benefits graduates stay healthier, live longer, are richer, and more likely to marry, stay out of jail, and buy homes Worldwide, more adolescents are attending high school School: The Volatile Mismatch

    50. Volatile mismatch (reason for dropping out) current needs often conflict with traditional structures of schools person-environment fit—degree to which environment is conducive to growth of particular individual School: The Volatile Mismatch (cont.)