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Chapter 16 – Review“Covalent Bonding” Milbank High School
Chapter 16 - Review • How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond? • How many valence electrons does an atom of any halogen have? • How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond? • How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to gain to attain a noble-gas electron configuration?
Chapter 16 - Review • How many unshared pairs of electrons does the nitrogen atom in ammonia (NH3) possess? • How many electrons does carbon need to gain to obtain a noble-gas electron configuration? • What is the total number of covalent bonds normally associated with a single carbon atom in a compound?
Chapter 16 - Review • How many unshared pairs of electrons are there in a molecule of hydrogen iodide? • How many covalent bonds are there in a covalently bonded molecule containing 1 phosphorus atom and 3 chlorine atoms? • What is the name given to the energy required to break a single bond?
Chapter 16 - Review • How do atoms achieve noble-gas electron configurations in single covalent bonds? • Why do atoms share electrons in covalent bonds? • What is shown by the structural formula of a molecule or polyatomic ion?
Chapter 16 - Review • What is the name given to the pairs of valence electrons that do not participate in bonding in diatomic oxygen molecules? • Which elements can form diatomic molecules joined by a single covalent bond? • Which of these elements does not exist as a diatomic molecule: I, Ne, H, F
Chapter 16 - Review • What elements can form diatomic molecules held together by triple covalent bonds? • What elements can form diatomic molecules held together by double covalent bonds? • A covalent bond in which each atom contributes two electrons is a ___.
Chapter 16 - Review • A diatomic molecule with a triple covalent bond is _____. • A molecule with a single covalent bond is: CO2 or Cl2? • Which noble gas has the same electron configuration as the oxygen in a water molecule?
Chapter 16 - Review • What diatomic molecule is joined by a double covalent bond? • When one atom contributes both bonding electrons in a single covalent bond, the bond is called a(n) _______. • Once formed, how are coordinate covalent bonds different from normally formed covalent bonds?
Chapter 16 - Review • What is true concerning the resonant molecule dinitrogen tetraoxide (or any resonant structure for that matter!)? • When do exceptions to the octet rule occur? • Substances in which all of the electrons are paired are said to be ______.
Chapter 16 - Review • How many unpaired electrons are present in each molecule of a para-magnetic substance? • Which of the following types of magnetism is the strongest: paramagnetic; diamagnetic; or ferromagnetic? • Which of the following fails to follow the octet rule: fluorine or oxygen?
Chapter 16 - Review • In which of the following compounds is the octet expanded to include 12 electrons: SO3or SCl6? • What is one way in which compounds that do not follow the octet rule can achieve stability? • Which of the following pairs of elements can be joined by a covalent bond: Mg and C; or N and C?
Chapter 16 - Review • What type of covalent bond is most stable between small atoms: polar or nonpolar? • According to VSEPR theory, molecules adjust their shapes to keep what items as far apart as possible?
Chapter 16 - Review • What causes water molecules to have a bent shape, according to VSEPR theory? • What is the measure of the tetrahedral bond angle? • What is the bond angle in a water molecule? • What is thought to cause the dispersion forces?
Chapter 16 - Review • Which of the forces of molecular attraction is the weakest? • What causes hydrogen-bonding? • Why is hydrogen-bonding only possible with hydrogen?