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Chapter 35 Section 5. Drugs and the Nervous system Biology pgs. 910-914. A ________ is any substance, other than food, that changes the structure or function of the body.

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chapter 35 section 5

Chapter 35 Section 5

Drugs and the Nervous system

Biology pgs. 910-914

slide2

A ________ is any substance, other than food, that changes the structure or function of the body.

  • Some drugs, such as cocaine and heroin are illegal. Other drugs, such as penicillin and codeine are prescribed by doctors. Still other drugs, including cough medicines can be purchased over the counter.
  • _____ drugs can be _______ if used improperly or abused.

drug

All

harmful

slide3

Drugs ________ in the ways in which they affect the body.

      • Some kill bacteria and are useful in treating disease.
      • Others affect a particular system of the body.
      • Others cause changes to the brain and synapses.
  • Stimulants
          • ______________ increase heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. In addition, stimulants increase the release of neurotransmitters at some synapses in the brain.
          • Common stimulants include amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, and ___________.

differ

Stimulants

caffeine

slide4

Depressants 

    • ______________ slow down heart rate and breathing rate, lower blood pressure, relax muscles, and relieve tension.
    • Barbiturates, tranquilizers, and alcohol are some examples of depressants.
  • Cocaine  
    • Cocaine causes the sudden release in the brain of a neurotransmitter called _____________.
    • Cocaine also acts as a powerful stimulant.

Depressants

dopamine

slide5

Opiates  

    • ___________ mimic endorphins which normally help to overcome sensations of pain.
    • Common opiates include ____________ and codeine.
  • Marijuana
    • The most widely abused illegal drug is marijuana.
    • Marijuana comes from Cannabis sativa, a hemp plant.
    • Hashish, or hash, is a potent form of marijuana.
    • The active ingredient in marijuana is __________.

Opiates

morphine

THC

slide6

Long-term use of marijuana can result in:

      • loss of ____________
      • inability to concentrate
      • in males, ____________ levels of the hormone testosterone in males
      • Alcohol is a ___________ that slows down the rate at which the central nervous system functions.
      • Alcohol slows down reflexes, disrupts coordination, and impairs judgment.

memory

reduced

depressant

slide7

Heavy drinking fills the blood with so much alcohol that the central nervous system ___________ function properly.

  • People who drink a lot of alcohol usually cannot walk or talk properly, and they are not able to _______ control an automobile.
  • ___________ women who drink alcohol risk having a child with FAS.

cannot

safely

Pregnant

slide8

___________ alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on the fetus.

  • FAS can cause minor to serious ______________, heart defects, malformed faces, delayed growth, and poor motor development.

Fetal

brain damage

slide9

Alcohol and Disease

    • People who have become addicted to alcohol suffer from a disease called ______________.
    • If a person cannot function properly without satisfying the craving for alcohol, that person has an alcohol-_______ problem.
    • Long-term alcohol use destroys _______ cells.

alcoholism

abuse

liver

slide10

Drug Abuse

      • Drug abuse is the intentional misuse of any drug for nonmedical purposes.
      • Drug abuse can cause psychological dependence or serious physical ____________ to the body.
  • Uncontrollable dependence on a drug is called an ____________.
  • Some drugs cause a strong psychological dependence, or mental craving.

damage

Addiction