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Announcements. “Lab” is still tomorrow We will meet in Ellison 204 We will have a quick info session on group projects We will have a lecture on Ch. 14 Part 2 No class on Friday unless you want to turn in homework

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  • “Lab” is still tomorrow
    • We will meet in Ellison 204
    • We will have a quick info session on group projects
    • We will have a lecture on Ch. 14 Part 2
    • No class on Friday unless you want to turn in homework
  • Ch. 14 Part 1 Homework due tomorrow (if you are leaving for Spring Break early) or Friday

Think back to the lab where we examined all the places bacteria live and remember our skin and mucous membranes are covered in microbes…

Why don’t we get sick more when we are bombarded with bacteria?

We have defenses! YAY!

what are these defenses
What are these defenses?
  • 2 Arms of Defense:
    • 1) Innate Immunity
      • Non-specific defenses
        • 1st line of defense
        • Early acting after you are infected
        • Come in the form of barriers (road blocks)

or general pathways that are elicited

        • No memory or learning response
    • 2) Adaptive Immunity
      • Specific defenses
        • 2nd Line of defense
        • Not immediate, there is a gradual response
        • Requires innate system for help
        • Learning and remembering is involved
you step on a nail
You step on a nail…
  • Your foot becomes infected…

A) How does your body eliminate the invader and cure itself?

B) How does your body respond when you encounter the infection for a second time?

First Line of Defense: Innate Immunity


Before you stepped on the nail, what protected you from the nail?

Hint: It is related to your body and not your clothing


1 st line of defense skin physical barrier
1st Line Of Defense: Skin Physical Barrier
  • What do they do?
    • Act as a border to the outside world
    • Some can be inside too!
    • They are in direct contact with the outside world
skin defense properties
Skin Defense Properties
  • Tightly woven layers
    • Tough and durable
  • Skin can be waxy from keratin
    • Dry environment not hospitable for microbes
  • Some skin produces mucous
    • Wash microbes away
  • Some skin moves
    • Peristalsis
    • Cilia
    • To wash or move microbes through the environment

Bacteria get past the physical barriers when you step on the nail…

Now what?

You have additional first-line of defenses!

Antimicrobial substances and Normal Flora

more 1 st line of defenses antimicrobial substances and normal flora
More 1st Line of Defenses: Antimicrobial Substances and Normal Flora
  • Antimicrobial Substances
  • Lysozyme in tears, saliva, and mucus degrades peptidoglycan
  • Peroxidase in body tissues breaks down hydrogen peroxide into other reactive oxygen species
  • Lactoferrin in mucus, saliva, and milk binds iron and without iron microbes can’t grow
  • Defensins produce by skin cells insert into bacteria walls
  • Normal Flora
  • Compete for nutrients, space

Your first line of defenses fail you and now bacteria from the nail are in your foot causing an infection.

Now what?


-2 responses at once!

1 st innate response complement
1st Innate Response: Complement
  • A series of proteins circulating in our blood and fluid that surrounds our tissues
  • C=complement
  • -ase=enzyme
  • Coat invaders in EAT ME SIGNAL
  • Cells that eat invaders
  • Holes in membrane=dead

Complement is activated after the first line of defenses fail you when you step on a nail…

What is the result of each?



Which innate cells come to the rescue to resolve the infection from the nail?

question for next time
Question For Next Time

How do these cells know where to go? What attracts them to the site of infection vs. a sterile place?