Nano Materials. DEFINITIONS. Nanochemistry is the science of tools, technologies and methodologies for chemical synthesis, analysis and biochemical diagnostics, performed in nanolitre to femtolitre domains. Nanoparticles are the particles within the siqe ranging from 1-50 nm.
Nanomaterials in one dimension are layers like thin films or surface coatings.
The strength of sp2 carbon-carbon bonds gives carbon nanotubes amazing mechanical properties. Because of their hollow structure and high aspect ratio the tend to undergo buckling when placed under compressive, torsional or bending stress. These properties coupled with the lightness of carbon , give them great potential in applications such as Aerospace.
One study succeeded in the synthesis of a super-hard material by compressing SWNT’s to above 25 Gpa at room temperature.
Carbon nanotubes can be metallic or semi conducting depending on their structure.
This depends on the symmetry and unique electronic structure of graphene. For a given nanotube, if n=m, the nanotube is metallic; if n-m is a multiple of 3, then the nanotube is semiconducting with a moderate semiconductor. Based on their electrical properties nanotubes are used in flat-panel displays, scanning probe microscopes and sensing devices.
Atoms in CNT are continuously vibrating back and forth. They have two normal modes of vibrations.
The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a unique material with a whole range of promising applications.
Fullerenes readily participate in a number of chemical reactions. Its reactivity is very good; therefore a number of fullerene derivatives can be prepared: