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Team Teaching. Heather Stewart & Lori Wilfong State Support Team, Region 4 February 4, 2009. Pre-reading activity. Tea Party Read your slip silently to yourself. Make sure you can read it with confidence!

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team teaching

Team Teaching

Heather Stewart & Lori Wilfong

State Support Team, Region 4

February 4, 2009

pre reading activity
Pre-reading activity
  • Tea Party
    • Read your slip silently to yourself. Make sure you can read it with confidence!
    • When I say go, read your slip aloud to as many different people as possible. Allow them to read their slip back to you.
    • As you read and listen, begin to formulate a prediction for this text we are about to read!
during reading activity
During Reading Activity
  • Stump the Teacher
    • Have students read to a certain point in the text
    • Give them a set amount of time to brainstorm questions about the text (as if they were a teacher giving a quiz)
    • Students must know the answer to their own questions!
    • Call on students and attempt to answer their questions.
    • If you are wrong, you are stumped (bonus point, sticker, etc.)
post reading activity
Post Reading Activity

I Am poem

  • Fill out the poem as if you are Abraham Lincoln
  • Use your inference skills! The article tells you about his life; how do you think he felt?
  • Be prepared to share!


What strategies did we use to facilitate this lesson?

Who were the special needs’ learners?

Who was the lead teacher?

Who was the intervention specialist?

  • Agenda
  • Who we are
  • A brief history of the inclusion movement
  • Break!
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Lunch!
  • Lesson demonstration
  • Frontloading
  • Break!
  • Co-planning/co-teaching
  • Team Time
lori g wilfong ph d
Lori G. Wilfong, Ph.D.
  • 6-8 ESL teacher, East Los Angeles
  • Literacy Coach, Rootstown Schools
  • Literacy Specialist, Maple Heights Schools
  • Assistant Professor, Literacy Education, Kent State University, Stark Campus
heather stewart m ed
Heather Stewart, M.Ed.
  • Classroom Teacher: ESL, Spec. Ed., 1st grade, 6th -8th grade Reading/LA – Korea, Colorado Springs, East Cleveland City Schools
  • Literacy Specialist, East Cleveland City Schools
  • Regional Literacy Consultant, State Support Team 4
the inclusion movement

The inclusion movement

A brief history of how we got here!

in the early days
In the early days…
  • “…special education began to undergo a process that…has seemed to mimic cell division.”
  • There were 30 distinct eligibility categories for special education services!

Sailor & Roger, 2005

differentiation vs integration
Differentiation vs. Integration
  • Turn to someone sitting next to you and discuss this question:
    • Is it possible to integrate students into the classroom, and still provide differentiated instruction? How do you accommodate so many different learners?
the diagnostic prescriptive models
The diagnostic/prescriptive models
  • Students were diagnosed in one of the categories of disability and tagged for separate treatment.
in the 1980s notice the big hair
In the 1980s (notice the big hair)…
  • Initiatives to slow down the number of special education categories and placements
  • Studies citing positive outcomes of integrated practices and negative outcomes of pullout practices
something good in nclb and idea
Something GOOD in NCLB and IDEA?
  • All children are general education students
  • But, are all general education students usually in the back of the classroom with a paraprofessional to work on “something else?”
sum it up
Sum it up!
  • The most important thing about the inclusion movement is….
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • But, the most important thing about the inclusion movement is…
turn to the other person sitting next to you
Turn to the other person sitting next to you…

What is a classroom practice you use that is good for all students – not just special needs’ students?

a little about udi
A little about UDI
  • Universal Design for Instruction
  • Born out of retrofitting buildings to accommodate all (curb cuts, ramps, electric doors)
  • For education – to proactively meet the needs of diverse learners
  • Equitable Use
    • Instruction is identical where possible, equivalent when not
    • Ex: All students use pause procedure, guided notes, and graphic organizers; not just those with disabilities
  • Flexibility in use
    • Instruction accommodates a wide range of abilities
    • Ex. Use varied instructional methods
      • Group activities
      • Hands-on
      • Web-based discussions
  • Simple and intuitive
    • Instruction is straightforward and predictable in manner
      • Ex. Clear grading rubrics
      • Accurate and comprehensive syllabus
a few accommodations to note
A few accommodations to note…
  • Guided Notes –
  • Rationale: Improves accuracy of notes, frees students from excess writing, actively involves students in constructing notes and following lecture/text
    • Teacher prepares handout that guide students through a lecture or reading
      • Most important content (less is more)
      • Delete key facts, concepts, and relationships from lecture or reading for student to fill in
      • Remaining information structures and contextualizes notes.
guided notes how to
Guided Notes how to…
  • Insert cues (*, 1.) to indicate where and how many facts or concepts to write
  • Leave plenty of space
  • Don’t require too much writing
  • Include additional resources for reference
other accommodation used in lecture the pause procedure
Other accommodation used in lecture: The pause procedure
  • Rationale: Increases accuracy of notes and provides instructor and student with mental break
    • Short (2 minute) periodic break to review notes and discuss content
    • Every 15 minutes (or so)
    • Set timer
    • Pauses can be
      • Independent
      • Group
      • The two Think-Pair-Shares were examples of the Pause Procedure!
graph yourself share
Graph Yourself: Share
  • In general, it’s true that no one has bars that are all the same height!
  • Some people are good at some things and not so terrific at other things.
  • What does FAIR mean? Everyone doesn’t always get the same. Everyone gets what he or she needs!
why differentiate
Why Differentiate
  • One size fits all instruction does not address the needs of many students
  • Kids come in different shapes and sizes as well as interests, learning profiles, and readiness levels
discover your learning style
Discover your learning style:
  • Complete the Multiple Intelligence Survey handout
  • Calculate your score for each section
  • Chart your results on the graph provided
  • Discuss the similarities and differences of your results with a partner
3 elements for differentiation tomlinson 200
3 Elements for Differentiation(Tomlinson, 200)
  • Content
  • Process
  • Product

Providing a “Rack of Learning” options

  • We need to do more than

“tailor the same suit of clothes”

  • Differentiation requires thoughtful

planning and proactive approaches

defining content
Defining Content
  • Content is the “input” of teaching and learning. It’s what we teach or want students to learn.
  • Content is what a student should come to know (facts), understand (concepts and principles), and be able to do (skills) as a result of a given segment of study (a lesson, a learning experience, a unit).
  • How the content is delivered in a lesson.
strategies for differentiating content
Strategies for Differentiating Content
  • Differentiating content can be thought of in two ways:
    • Teachers can adapt what they teach.
    • Teachers can adapt or modify how they give students access to what they want them to learn.
defining process
Defining Process
  • Process is a synonym for activities
  • The activity provides an opportunity for each student to make sense of the learning
  • Effective activities focus on the key knowledge, understanding, and skills of the lesson
strategies for differentiating process
Strategies for Differentiating Process
  • Tiered Activities
  • Interest Centers
  • Personal Agendas
  • Manipulatives
  • Length of Time to complete task
  • Flexible Grouping
  • Ability Levels
defining product
Defining Product
  • Varying the product (work) students create
  • Varying the complexity of the product students create depending on their ability level
  • Providing a variety of projects for students to show in their learning, including student choice
strategies for differentiating product
Strategies for Differentiating Product
  • Clear Expectations
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Product Guidelines/Checklists
  • Rubrics
  • Evaluation
classroom structures needed
Classroom Structures Needed
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Materials
  • Grouping Practices
  • Assessments
  • Monitoring Tools

Gallery Walk: Brainstorm “Look-fors”

Independent Activity: Goal Setting

  • Gallery Walk
  • What does it look like in the classroom?
  • Group Share
  • Key Ideas

Students participate

in a "Dump your Brain"



Preschool children can “Dump their Brain” in a modified way:

Show me all the ways we can

make “three.”





  • What did you learn that was NEW information for you?
  • Did anything surprise you or confuse you?
  • Based on your own experience, was there anything with which you strongly AGREED? DISAGREED?
  • How might you CHANGE your instructional practices?

Student choice is KEY!

Students work in the learning style that suits them best.

Students work at a comfortable level of readiness.

lunch time

Lunch time!

Be back in one hour!



Why, how, and when!

steps in frontloading
Steps in frontloading…
  • What you are expecting students to learn today – contextualize the lesson as much as possible
  • Expand the student’s knowledge by activating or providing background information
theories of comprehension
Theories of Comprehension
  • Schema Theory:
    • A reader comprehends when he is able to bring to mind a schema (organized knowledge) that gives a good account of the objects and events described in the message.
the notes were sour because the seam split

The notes were sour because the seam split.

What could this sentence possible mean?

the bagpipe notes were sour because the seam split

The bagpipe notes were sour because the seam split.

How does the addition of bagpipe help you?

think of a time when
Think of a time when…
  • …your background knowledge was not activated and you were unable to comprehend something or had a really difficult time comprehending.
  • What did that feel like?
implications for instruction
Implications for instruction
  • Children do not spontaneously integrate what they are reading with what they already know so…
  • Do not presuppose prerequisite knowledge so…
  • What we already know needs a place to go so…
  • Culture and schema are important so…
schema comprehension
Schema & Comprehension
  • Comprehension is a matter of activating or constructing a schema that provides a coherent explanation of objects and events mentioned in a text (Anderson, 1984).
  • The file system
comprehension pre reading activities
Comprehension – Pre-reading activities
  • WHY:
    • To promote personal responses
    • To activate and build background knowledge
    • To set purposes for reading
    • To arouse curiosity and motivate students to read
would you
Would you…
  • …jump into a pool without dipping your toes in first to test the water? Probably not.
  • Similarly, does an elite athlete begin their event without stretching or warming up first? Definitely not.
anticipation guides
Anticipation Guides
  • A list of statements with which students agree or disagree
  • Statements are related to concepts, issues, attitudes, or themes in the reading selection
anticipation guide basic class trip
1. Substitutes are always treated well

2. Field trips are fun.

3. Students miss the teacher when he or she is absent.

Anticipation Guide - basic: Class Trip
  • Agree Disagree
  • 1._____ ______
  • 2. _____ ______
  • 3._____ ______
book boxes
Book Boxes
  • Students are provided with clues and encouraged to make predictions about the selection they are about to read or that will be read to them
book bits
Similar to Book Boxes, but instead of sharing objects, sentences or phrases from the text are shared and students make predictions about the text based on them.

I had been looking forward to going to the museum with Ms. Howell.

He thought he knew what we liked, but he had no idea.

By the time the full moon was visible, we had all changed.

Book Bits
contrast charts
Contrast Charts
  • The teacher identifies theme-related contrasting categories where students can list ideas to help bring their brains to the text.
contrast chart what are some of the advantages and disadvantages of having a substitute in class








Contrast Chart – What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of having a substitute in class?
tea party
Tea Party
  • Adapted from p. 52, Wilhelm
  • 10 minutes
  • Preview the book or story to be read by students.
  • Select important quotations from the text, enough for one for each student.
  • Distribute the quotes to each student.
  • Invite them to “mingle,” sharing with each other only the quote that they have been handed (you can up the tea party quotient with tea or cookies!).
tea party continued
Tea Party, continued
  • After five minutes, ask students to return to their seats and write out their predictions about this character or story. Guiding questions for them to answer could be:
    • What will this story be about?
    • What is one major event that you think might happen?
    • What was the most interesting quote you heard and why?
  • Students read the story, checking to see if the “gossip” from their tea party was fact or fiction.
word walls
Word Walls
  • Definition:
    • A word wall is a systematically organized collection of words displayed in large letters on a wall or other large display place in the classroom. It is a tool to use, not just display. Word walls are designed to promote group learning and be shared by a classroom of students.
  • Support principles about words
  • Foster reading and writing
  • Reference
  • Promote independence
  • Visual Map
  • Core of words
types of word walls
Types of word walls…
  • Commonly misspelled words/high-frequency words
  • Subject specific – math unit, time in history, science concept, etc.
  • The key to a successful word wall is the word "interactive."
  • The best resources for word wall lists are free. They are your students and your curriculum.
let s create a word wall and play some games to demonstrate its use
Let’s create a word wall and play some games to demonstrate its use
  • On your note cards, come up with words relating to teams – any kind of team!
use your word walls
Use your Word Walls!
  • Word Wall Activity #1
    • OOPS!
      • Fluency
      • Word recognition
      • Familiarity with content area vocab.
word wall activity
Word Wall Activity

Chain of Words

word wall activity83
Word Wall Activity
  • Baseball
    • Designate different areas around the room as the bases.
    • Select words from the word wall.
    • The batter can do a number of things to earn hits:
      • Spell it (single)
      • Definition (double)
      • Use it correctly in a sentence (triple).
      • Make a connection to something else (another content, yourself, something you have read, etc.)
word wall activity84
Word Wall Activity
  • Personal word sort activity – Knowledge Ratings Chart
knowledge ratings
Knowledge Ratings
  • Get readers to analyze what they know about a topic using important vocabulary words
  • From a newspaper unit in a middle school language arts class:


What activities can you use? What activities can you add to the list?

factors that influence co teaching
Factors that influence co-teaching
  • Scheduling
  • Content knowledge of special education teachers
  • Philosophies of both teachers in regard to classroom management

(Weiss & Lloyd, 2003)

5 models of co teaching
5 models of co-teaching
  • One teacher and one assistant or teacher drifting
  • Station teaching
  • Parallel teaching
  • Alternative teaching
  • Team Teaching

Ideally, both teachers collaborate on all components of the educational process

(Bouck, 2007)

successful features of co teaching
Successful features of co-teaching
  • Willingness & capability!
  • Balanced list of students for heterogeneous mix
  • VOLUNTEER for co-teaching assignments
  • Planning time AT LEAST once a week (daily, if possible)

(Walther-Thomas, Bryant, & Land, 1996)

reminder classroom structures needed
Reminder:Classroom Structures Needed
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Materials
  • Grouping Practices
  • Assessments
  • Monitoring Tools

Some important strategies when planning for students:

Tiered Lessons


Anchor Activities



Offer a different task at varying degrees of difficulty on each side of the cube.




Provide activities dealing with the same topic at tiered degrees of difficulty by cube OR by learning style (kinesthetic, visual, oral).

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

team time
Team time
  • Plan with support!
  • How can you implement these ideas?
contact information
Contact Information

Lori Wilfong, Ph.D.

Heather Stewart, M.Ed.