FOUNDATION OF CYBERNETICS Siddharth Deshpande
Cybernetics began as the science of communication and control in the animal, machine, and society; i.e. special types of systems. It operates on two levels: study of an observed system & study of the people studying a system. Originated from R & D process in the development of the atomic bomb- applied scientific theory & principles in real-world setting. WHAT IS CYBERNETICS?
Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory The term cybernetics stems from the Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). CYBERNETICS
Cybernetics is preeminent when the system under scrutiny is a closed loop system. Cybernetics as the theory of control mechanisms in technology and nature is founded on the concepts of information and feedback, but as part of a general theory of systems. CYBERNETICS
Cybernetics does not ask "what is this thing?" but "what does it do?" and "what can it do?" There was also a return from the machine to the living organism, which accelerated progress in neurology, perception, the mechanisms of vision In the sixties MIT saw the extension of cybernetics and system theory to industry, society, and ecology.
Theoretical-sciences of complexity--including AI, neural networks, dynamical systems, chaos, and complex adaptive systems. Practical-Many of the concepts used by system scientists come from the closely related approach of cybernetics: information, control, feedback, communication.
STEERING LOOP AS A FEEDBACK Detection of error Comparing heading with goals of reaching port Adjust rudder to correct heading Correction of Error feedback Ships Heading
AUTOMATION OF FEEDBACK Thermostat Heater Temperature of Room Air
THE FEEDBACK LOOP ‘Cybernetics introduces for the first time — and not only by saying it, but methodologically — the notion of circularity, circular causal systems.’ — Heinz von Foerster
Three men can be regarded as the pioneers of great breakthroughs (in cybernetics): the mathematician NORBRT WEINER, who died in 1964, the neurophysiologist WARREN McCULLOCH, who died in 1969; and JAY FORRESTER, professor at the Sloan School of Management at MIT. PIONEERS
NOBERT WEINER FOUNDER OF CYBERNETICS
CYBERNETIC EARLY USES ‘Cybernetics saves the souls, bodies, and material possessions from the gravest dangers.’ — Socrates according to Plato ‘The future science of government should be called “la cybernetique.”’— André-Marie Ampere, 1843 ‘Until recently, there was no existing word for this complex of ideas, and…I felt constrained to invent one....’ — Norbert Wiener
If a true cybernetic approach to problem solving is adopted The planner must first define his goals and criteria for their achievement as clearly and with little ambiguity Modern Cybernetics has attempted to understand how systems describe themselves, control themselves, and organize themselves. APPROACH TO CYBERNETICS
An example of a cybernetic system is the home furnace that responds via thermostatic control to changes in temperature for the purpose of maintaining a reasonably constant temperature in the home. • In Automobiles the Automatic Cruise Control can also be considered as example of Cybernetics. EXAMPLES OF CYBERNETICS
ASIMO A live example ASIMO the robot made by HONDA Corp which uses Principles of Cybernetics.
Dick & Carey shows evidence of an underlying system and approach to instruction. This model highlights the principle that is applicable to solve any kind of problem. The approach can be broken apart and each part examined and it has a linear structure. DICK AND CAREY APPROACH
If we would uncover those general laws, we would be able to analyze and solve problems in any domain, pertaining to any type of system by following all D & C steps contd.
Explanation of communication = psychology Modeling of learning = cognitive science Limits of knowing = epistemology Hearer makes the meaning = post-modernism Reality as social construction = constructivism Reliable methodologies of describing = science SCOPE OF CYBERNETICS
Measuring understanding & agreement = science of subjectivity = second-order cybernetics
‘…communication and control in animal and machine’ — Norbert Wiener ‘… the science of observing systems’ — Heinz von Foerster ‘… the art of defensible metaphors’ — Gordon Pask ‘… the study of the immaterial aspects of systems’ — W. Ross Ashby ‘… only practiced in Russia and other under-developed countries --- Marvin Minsky CYBERNETICS QUOTED
1.pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CYBSYSTH.html 2. link.springer.de/link/service/journals/0042 3. cyvision.if.sc.usp.br 4. www.evolutionaryethics.com 5. www.xmission.com/~cyberman 6. Wikipedia.org 7. http://www.gwu.edu/~asc/asc-foundation.html REFERENCES