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prənənsi ːˈ eɪʃən. ˈ gaɪ ˈθ ɪsəl θ weɪt ˈ ðə ˈ twenti ː ˈ sɪks θ əv ˈ dʒuːn ˈtuː ˈ θ æʊzən ənd ˈ twelv. Why is it important?. BAD PRON. GOOD PRON. Why is it difficult?. Do you say “espein” or “espein”?. Neither, we say “Spain”. Ah, “espein”, thank you!. What is it?.

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pr n nsi e n

prənənsiːˈeɪʃən

ˈgaɪˈθɪsəlθweɪt

ˈðə ˈtwentiː ˈsɪksθ əv ˈdʒuːn ˈtuː ˈθæʊzənənd ˈtwelv

why is it important
Why is it important?

BAD PRON

GOOD PRON

why is it difficult
Why is it difficult?

Do you say “espein” or “espein”?

Neither, we say “Spain”

Ah, “espein”, thank you!

what is it
What is it?

acontinuouschainofsoundsnotwordsthatcanbeseparatedfromoneanotherlikewrittenlanguage

the sounds
The sounds
  • Vocal chords
    • Voiced or unvoiced
    • Vowels & consonants
  • Vowels
    • Shape of the mouth
    • The tongue
  • Consonants
    • Obstruction of airflow
    • Valves, tongue, lips
slide7

Sound maze: Follow words with the sound /i:/

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

IN

beach

meet

sleet

deceive

concrete

defeat

+

fly

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

agree

+

+

ship

great

brie

litter

metre

neat

discreet

+

+

+

+

Crete

+

+

pleasure

tread

treat

drink

shy

+

+

+

+

+

+

twit

white

meaning

flee

green

complete

bread

+

+

+

+

+

+

clean

fridge

dreamer

stink

dead

hid

hide

OUT

live

drive

screen

greet

stream

needy

steam

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

slide8

Moscow

Dublin

Buenos Aires

London

New Delhi

Colombo

Edinburgh

Singapore

Lusaka

New York

Sydney

Madrid

Paris

Rome

Nairobi

Bangkok

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

3

3

3

2

2

1

what s my name it s not homer bart marge and lisa

jury great sunday computer unknown

fudge matron whistle america contest

due delay single waiter seaman

wages bait base forget fantastic

suggest although strangers

soldier saxophone dangers

jacket postman enters

fridge follow revenge

ocean reading castle psychology

shop complete battle water

sugar seventeen arrival kitchen

fishing pieces pills metre

autumn apples eighth uniform teaspoon

combing parrot thought future juicy

comfortable expand through yellow movement

handsome backache tooth newspaper thirty-two

What’s my name?(It’s not Homer, Bart, Marge and Lisa!)
stress
Stress

It’s Magic!

photo...?

word stress rules
Word Stress Rules
  • GOLDEN RULES
  • ONE word, ONE stress
  • ONLY stress vowels
  • Other rules
  • 1st syllable stress
  • Lastsyllable stress
  • Penultimatesyllable stress
  • Ante-penultimatesyllable stress
  • Compoundword stress
slide14

Word stress maze: Follow words with the stress pattern oOo

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

IN

container

decider

+

+

+

+

+

beloved

+

favourite

mummify

limited

deformed

+

+

+

+

+

+

footballer

simile

receiver

silicon

presently

illegal

collapsed

+

+

+

+

+

+

practical

mastery

dilemma

daintily

stupidly

carefully

destroyed

+

+

+

+

+

+

creative

potato

detention

diligent

forgetful

sensation

inverted

+

+

+

derision

+

+

+

Japanese

delightful

revival

pharmacy

recover

interest

OUT

tomato

deliver

condition

puppetry

stereo

defender

mistaken

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

ı

sentence stress
Sentence Stress

OPEN

WINDOW

HOT

ROOM

youOPENtheWINDOWforHOT of ROOM?

wouldyouOPENtheWINDOWbecauseit’s quite HOT in thisROOM?

t

t

t

sentence stress rules
Sentence Stress Rules
  • RULES
  • Content words are stressed
  • Structurewords are unstressed
  • The time betweenstressedwordsisthesame
dominoes
Dominoes
  • Play this game in groups of 3 or 4. Deal out the same number of cards to each player. If you are playing in a group of three, place one card in the middle as a starter.
  • Take turns to place cards on the table and build a track. The phrases in the sides that are next to each other must contain the same stress pattern.
  • A player who is unable to place a card, misses their turn; a player who places a card incorrectly must take the card back and miss a turn.
  • The first player to palce all of their cards in the track is the winner!
suffixes what are the rules
Suffixes…what are the rules?
  • Play
  • Add
  • Remember
  • Want
  • Wish
  • Wait
  • Match
  • Mend
  • Apple
  • Orange
  • Hate
  • Watch
  • Smith
  • Jones
  • Want
  • Wish
ed s es
ed & s/es
  • ed endings
  • If the verb ends in /t/ or /d/ then you add an extra syllable /ɪd/
  • If it ends in an unvoiced consonant then no syllable, just a /t/
  • If it ends in a voiced consonant then no syllable, just a /d/
  • Add the extra syllable /ɪz/ if the word ends in:
  • /s/
  • /dʒ/
  • /ʃ/
  • /tʃ/
  • /z/
chinese chequers rules
Chinese chequers - Rules
  • Players each choose a letter, A, B or C. They place their three counters on the three corresponding circles at the bottom of the board.
  • The aim of the game is to move these three counters across the board to the three circles in teh box opposite marked home. The first person to do this is the winner.
  • Players take turns to throw the dice and move. For each number there is a stress pattern indicated above and below the board. After throwing the dice, players can move one of their counters to a neighbouring hexagon if it contains the stress pattern contained on the dice. If there isn’t a neighbouring hexagon with the stress pattern indicated, players miss a turn.
chinese chequers rules1
Chinese chequers - Rules
  • Players may choose not to move if it is not to their advantage.
  • Only one counter can occupy a hexagon at a time
  • Players cann throw any number to enter the home box
  • Players can jumpstraight across a hexagon occupied by another players’ counter, like this:
linking
Linking

Linking consonants to vowels

Can I have a bit of egg

Ca ni ha va bi to fegg

Linking vowels to vowels

GoWaway NoWonions

Wejare Seeja film

dominoes1
Dominoes

Closethedoor

Can’t you hear me?

just a minute
Just a minute
  • In pairs
  • Choose a topic to talk about for 1 minute
  • Start the watch
  • 1st person begins to talk, partner listens for pronunciation mistakes. When you hear a mistake you say stop, stop the watch and correct the mistake.
  • Start the watch again and the 2nd person speaks about the same topic until they make a mistake or the minute is finished.
  • The person talking at the end of the minute wins a point, then choose another topic and begin again!
personal presentation
Personal presentation

As the title suggests, I hope this brief paragraph will give you some interesting and possibly useful information about me.

My name is Guy Thistlethwaite, a name that causes me no end of problems in this country (my sexuality is even questioned!). I have lived in Spain since 1993 and have been a teacher since then. Curiously enough, I studied neither teaching nor English at university, in fact I studied “Town and Country Planning”, which has proven pretty useless!

I’m the owner of an academy in Embajadores – Meetingpoint and as well as this I do freelance work teaching business English and I’m also a teacher trainer for Macmillan Training Services.

I am married to a rather beautiful young Spanish lady and we live in little house in Pozuelo, we have 2 children, Amy (5) and Teo (3) – we had to give them short names given that their surnames are Thistlethwaite Moreno-Manzanaro!

Well, I hope this covers the essentials, I am sure you’ll find out a lot more about me during the week.

Financial English & Writing seminar

why study writing
Why study writing?

Financial English & Writing seminar

discuss the following questions
Discuss the following questions
  • When do you write (in Spanish or in English)? Outside of work, what do you write?
  • When you write at work what procedure do you follow?
  • What do you write in English?
  • What do you find difficult about writing, and especially writing in English?
  • What things do you think you can or should improve about your writing?

Financial English & Writing seminar

audience analysis
Audience analysis

Financial English & Writing seminar

register
Register

Vulgar

Friendly

Legal

Official

Slang

Professional

formal or informal
Formal or informal?
  • How are we formal in English?

Financial English & Writing seminar

how to be formal
How to be formal

Help me.

Would you help me?

Could you help me, please?

Would you mind helping me?

I wonder if you would help me a moment.

Sorry to ask, but would you mind helping me?

Please excuse me a moment, but would you please help me?

I’m terribly sorry to interrupt, but would you mind awfully helping me with this?

Financial English & Writing seminar

formal informal
Formal/informal
  • Our technician repaired the fault on the 12th June. Now you have to pay us.
  • Although the fault was repaired on 12th June, payment for this intervention has still not been received.
  • The company laid him off because he didn’t work much.
  • His insufficient production led to his dismissal.
  • I’m sorry but…/ I’m happy to say that…
  • We regret to inform you that… / We have pleasure in announcing that…
  • He had to get some money out of a hole in the wall.
  • He withdrew the amount from an ATM.
  • If you lose it, then please contact us as soon as possible.
  • Any loss of this document should be reported immediately.

Financial English & Writing seminar

formal informal1
Formal/informal
  • If you need any help give us a call
  • Should you require any assistance, please feel free to contact us.
  • I can help you to solve this problem. Call me!
  • We can assist in the resolution of this matter. Please contact us immediately.

Financial English & Writing seminar

formal informal language
Formal & informal language

Financial English & Writing seminar

slide37

IMHO in my humble opinionIMO in my opinion IOW in other words JTLYK just to let you know LOL laughing out loudNP no problem NRN no response necessary OIC oh, I see OTOH on the other hand PM private message RT real time SYS see you soon TA thanks again TAFN that's all for now TIA thanks in advance TTYL talk to you later TU thank you TYVMYW you are welcome

  • AFAIK as far as I knowAFK away from keyboard ASAP as soon as possible B4N bye for now BFN bye for now BRB be right back BTW by the wayCU see you DQMOT don't quote me on this EOM end of message F2F face to face FAQ frequently asked questions FWIW for what it's worth FYI for your information GA go ahead 

GL good luck GMTA great minds think alike

e mails do s and don t s
E-mails do’s and don’t’s
  • Always greet your correspondent
  • Start your message in the subject field
  • Overuse acronyms
  • Forward e-mails without getting the author's permission first
  • Re-read before sending
  • Think before you write
  • If you are angry, wait before answering
  • Be brief
  • Write in capital letters; it will be perceived as shouting
  • Think creatively about your subject line
  • Use upper & lower case
  • Use e-mail to conduct difficult conversations
  • Spell & punctuate properly
  • Sign off simply
discourse markers1
Discourse markers
  • In any case
  • Another important point is that
  • However
  • Despite
  • For this reason
  • In fact
  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • Futhermore
  • Because of
  • Besides
discourse markers2
Discourse markers

A number of writers have claimed that Asian women are now as free as their Western counterparts to get divorced._____________, the average Asian woman does not really have the same freedom to get divorced if she is in an unhappy marriage. Statistics clearly show that in the West, it is women, relatively independent in attitude and finances, who initiate most divorces. _____________, many Asian women still depend financially on their husbands and, _____________ may have to endure an unhappy marriage. _____________ some countries, the Philippines for example, do not permit divorce and, even if an Asian woman is prepared to live in relative poverty, she is likely to suffer from social problems related to divorce.  _____________ the problems, the Asian divorce rate is slowly increasing, as is the tendency to remain single. In Singapore, there are numerous unmarried professional women. They are mostly unworried about their single status; they have interesting work and money and _____________ prefer freedom to an unequal or bad marriage.

join these sentences
Join these sentences
  • I would not necessarily be happy.
  • He failed to repay his debts on time.
  • Most Westerners like to eat large portions of meat.
  • She was exhausted.
  • The driver of the bank robbers‘ car kept the engine running.
  • He is actually quite fit.
  • The book was difficult to understand.
  • We left the office early.
  • He's a fat man.
  • The West underwent industrialization many years ago.
  • He was refused further credit by his bank.
  • We could get to the cinema in time for the start of the film.
  • He could make a quick get-away.
  • Much of Asia is still in the process of developing.
  • He is a little overweight.
  • I was the richest person in the world.
  • The Chinese prefer to consume meat in the form of thin strips.
  • She continued to study.
  • Few students benefited from reading the book.
  • He finds it hard to climb the stairs.
punctuation
Punctuation

Punctuation marks help you to organise your words into clauses and sentences, and hence into identifiable units of meaning. They are the signs that alert readers to the appropriate pauses in your text. These pauses signal where you intend the emphasis and intonation to be placed, and thus how you want the text to be read. Punctuation marks help you tell the reader how to find the meaning from your organisation of the words.

Thus punctuation is more than just an incidental aspect of writing. It is an essential skill that helps you to express yourself clearly, directly and effectively.

punctuate this
Punctuate this!

dear sirs my recent order which arrived safely contained two items one red pyjama and one white stripe pyjama our daughter is four and a half months old weighs seven kilos and is 61 centimetres long in other words she is a fairly average size for her age given this we were confident that the right size of pyjama for her would be the 70cm which you claim will last until the baby is nine months old to our great disappointment the red is a tight fit now and may last one or two months misleading labelling and predictions are unfortunate in any circumstances but doubly so when the customer lives abroad apart from the trouble and cost of returning the things the fact is that our daughter needs the garments that we ordered now and we can thus hardly afford any delay could you please let me know whether it is your normal policy to overestimate the age and size for which a particular garment is suitable if this is so we can simply take it into account when we make orders in the future I would like to point out that we are in general happy with your goods it is only the question of size which we find extremely irritating yours faithfully robin smith

slide47

Dear Sirs,

My recent order, which arrived safely, contained two items: one red pyjama and one white stripe pyjama. Our daughter is four and a half months old, weighs seven kilos and is 61 centimetres long; in other words she is a fairly average size for her age. Given this, we were confident that the right size of pyjama for her would be the 70cm, which you claim will last until the baby is nine months old. To our great disappointment the red is a tight fit now, and may last one or two months.

Misleading labelling and predictions are unfortunate in any circumstances, but doubly so when the customer lives abroad. Apart from the trouble and cost of returning the things, the fact is that our daughter needs the garments that we ordered now, and we can thus hardly afford any delay.

Could you please let me know whether it is your normal policy to overestimate the age and size for which a particular garment is suitable? If this is so we can simply take it into account when we make orders in the future.

I would like to point out that we are in general happy with your goods; it is only the question of size which we find extremely irritating.

Yours faithfully,

Robin Smith

punctuate this1
Punctuate this!

Worksheet

Itisalwaysdifficultforstudentstousepunctuationcorrectlyanexerciselikethiscanbeveryusefulbutalsoveryfrustratingespeciallyifyoufindthissizeoffonttoosmallisthatbetterihopesonowwherewasiohyesyoucanuseanytextlikethistopractisepunctuationjustgivethestudentsablockoflanguagelikethisandaskthemtopunctuateitthengetthemtocomparetheiranswersinpairsorgroupsandfinallygivethemacorrectlypunctuatedversiontocheckagainstwhatcouldbeeasierthehardestpartforyouistypinglikethiswithnospacing!

spelling1
Spelling
  • Rules for spelling in English?
    • CVC
    • I before E except after C
    • Plurals
    • Irregular plurals
    • Americanisms
    • Any more?
  • Is it important?
some americanisms
Some Americanisms

aluminum aluminium

analog analogue

anesthesia anaesthesia

archeology archaeology

catalog catalogue

center centre

color colour

curb kerb

defense defence

dialog dialogue

donut doughnut

draft draught

encyclopedia encyclopaedia

favorite favourite

gray grey

gynecology gynaecology

hauler haulier

honor honour

humor humour

jewelry jewellery

license licence

maneuver manoeuvre

meter metre

mold mould

mustache moustache

nite night

omelet omelette

pajamas pyjamas

practice practise (v)

program programme

specialty speciality

story storey

sulfur sulphur

thru through

tire tyre

vise vice

us v gb english
US v GB English
  • Generally...
  • American English -or as a word ending is equivalent to -our in British English
  • American -er as a word ending is sometimes equivalent to -re in British English.
  • In American English the final e is removed from verbs before adding -ing, in correct British English this is not done.
  • American English tends to prefer -ize and -ization whereas British English prefers -ise and -isation.
  • Use a spell checker!
irregular plurals
Irregular plurals
  • We all know child, mouse and tooth, but what about these:
    • Analysis
    • Antenna
    • Appendix
    • Axis
    • Basis
    • Corpus
    • Crisis
    • Curriculum
  • Datum
  • Diagnosis
  • Deer
  • Fish
  • Focus
  • Formula
  • Genus
  • Goose
  • Index
  • Medium
  • phenomenon
  • Radius
  • Stadium
audience analysis1
Audience Analysis
  • Expert
  • Technician
  • Executive
  • Non-specialist
invention
Invention
  • Choose a subject
  • Focus on a narrow topic
  • Choose a controlling idea
  • Generate concrete examples
invention techniques
Invention Techniques
  • Reading
  • Brainstorming
  • Free writing
  • Journalist’s questions
  • Journal writing
  • Mind mapping
  • The technique you choose depends on you
rough drafting
Rough Drafting

If…

...you can’t start, go to a different section and come back later

…you get stuck, do another section and come back later.

…you don’t like a section, finish it and look at it again later

Use a pencil

Write on 1 side of page

Double space

Use headings

Write quickly

introductions

Ask yourself the following questions:

What’s the report about? Topic

Why was it written? Purpose

Who’s it for? Situation

What are the main contents? Contents

Introductions
introduction checklist
Introduction Checklist
  • Don’t only give background information
  • Get the topic in early
  • Indicate audience and situation
  • Overview of contents and scope
abstracts

Descriptive

Informative

Major heading of contents in paragraph form

Description of topic and purpose

Very short

Be sure to include all contents

What a reader would highlight reading the report

Key facts and conclusions

10% of length of report

Dense and compact

Not an introduction

No referencing / sourcing

Includes statistical detail

Excludes general, obvious information

Abstracts
conclusions
Conclusions

Summaries

“True” conclusions

Afterwords

Combinations of these

executive summaries
Executive Summaries

Written for people who do not have time to read the original

Explains the real significance of the report

No longer than 10% of the original

  • Functions:
    • Gives readers the essential contents of the report
    • Previews the main points so helping readers to understand
    • Helps readers to determine the key results and recommendations
final draft
Final Draft
  • Remember the details:
    • Formal & informal language
    • Grammar
    • Punctuation
    • Spelling (US if you are DUPREE!)
    • Discourse markers – take a step back
    • How Anglo Saxons develop an argument
final draft1
Final Draft
  • Presentation
    • Font & font size
    • Contents page / index
    • Headings
    • Graphics
      • Pictures
      • Diagrams
      • Graphs