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Achieving the MDGs: Rural Development Investment Cluster. Introduction. The rural development investment cluster includes interventions to: increase food production increase incomes, and ensure access to basic infrastructure services. Key Areas of Intervention.

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Achieving the MDGs:

Rural Development Investment Cluster

introduction
Introduction

The rural development investment cluster includes interventions to:

  • increase food production
  • increase incomes, and
  • ensure access to basic infrastructure services

www.unmillenniumproject.org

key areas of intervention
Key Areas of Intervention
  • Agricultural productivity
  • Rural income Generation
  • Transport
  • Energy
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Water resources infrastructure and management

www.unmillenniumproject.org

agricultural productivity and rural income generation key points
Agricultural Productivity and Rural Income Generation- Key Points
  • Interventions address poverty and hunger targets
  • Exact interventions will depend on underlying characteristics of poverty and hunger in the country
  • To address the hunger goal, these will need to be supplemented with interventions to address the three types of hunger – Hidden, Chronic, and Acute

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agricultural productivity choose interventions
Agricultural Productivity-Choose Interventions
  • Focus on food-insecure farmers
  • Interventions aimed at increasing food productivity to increase household consumption and generate marketable surplus
  • Interventions cover:
    • Investments to increase soil health (e.g. fertilizers, manure, agroforestry)
    • Provision of improved seeds and planting material
    • Investments in small scale on-farm water management for agriculture (e.g. traditional water harvesting and conservation, pumps, drip irrigation)
    • Agriculture and irrigation extension services with a special focus on reaching women farmers, and
    • Research in agriculture
    • Develop agriculture support systems, such as early warning systems

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rural income generation choose interventions
Rural Income Generation-Choose Interventions
  • Help the poor connect with markets from which they are excluded
    • Farmers associations
    • Community and market centers
    • Improving transportation systems
    • Training and skills development
  • Improve the terms on which the poor transact
    • Land
    • Quality financial services including microfinance
    • Storage facilities to reduce post harvest losses
  • Value-addition/agro-based processingactivities

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agricultural productivity and rural income generation define targets
Agricultural Productivity and Rural Income Generation-Define Targets

Agricultural productivity

  • Taking 1990 as the baseline year, enable at least half of the food-insecure subsistence farm households to grow enough food to feed themselves by 2015

Rural income generation

  • Taking 1990 as the baseline year, provide at least half the food-insecure households in rural areas with access to food storage facilities, quality financial services, value added food processing services, off-farm employment and marketing organizations (such as cooperatives) by 2015.

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estimate resource needs

Target coverage rates

Country demographic data

Needs

per beneficiary

Estimate Resource Needs

Target Population

TOTAL

NEEDS

Cost, HR, infrastructure components for key interventions

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the hunger dimension task force recommendations
The Hunger Dimension- Task Force Recommendations

Total Hunger needs

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interventions to improve nutritional outcomes
Interventions to Improve Nutritional Outcomes
  • Direct nutritional interventions to pregnant women and lactating mothers
  • Encourage complementary feeding for infants
  • School meals sourced through local production
  • Reduce under-nutrition among children under 5 years
  • Reduce vitamin and mineral deficiencies targeted at vulnerable groups, through micronutrient supplementation when needed
  • Emergency relief (early warning systems, safety nets, direct food aid)

www.unmillenniumproject.org

key areas of intervention1
Key Areas of Intervention
  • Agricultural productivity
  • Rural income Generation
  • Transport
  • Energy
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Water resources infrastructure and management

www.unmillenniumproject.org

the case for transport infrastructure and services as part of mdg strategy
The case for transport infrastructure and services as part of MDG strategy
  • Transport is not mentioned in the MDGs, but improved transport services (incl. roads, railways, and ports) are critical to:
    • Lower cost of national and international trade
    • Reduce cost of agricultural inputs and raise farmgate prices for produce
    • Improve prospects for non-farm rural employment
    • Improve access to urban employment
    • Improve access to social services (in particular emergency obstetric care to reduce MMR)
    • Reduce time poverty – particularly of women

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transport choose interventions
Transport -Choose Interventions
  • Transport systems for health and other essential social services and infrastructure maintenance
  • Upgrading and construction of footpaths, paved secondary or district roads as well as small paved feeder and community roads.
  • Institutional structure and funding arrangements for adequate road maintenance (such as dedicated road funds).

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transport possible targets
Transport -Possible Targets
  • By 2015 establish national systems for providing and maintaining motorbikes or other vehicles in support of healthcare, agricultural extension, maintenance of infrastructure, etc.
  • Ensure that 90 percent of the rural population is within 2km of the nearest motorized pick-up point by 2015.

www.unmillenniumproject.org

very preliminary roads needs assessment
Very preliminary roads needs assessment

Elements of a roads needs assessment:

Transport services

  • cost of setting up, operating and maintaining an integrated fleet of vehicles to provide key social services and infrastructure maintenance
  • See Riders for Health costing model (www.riders.org)

Transport infrastructure

  • carry out an inventory of existing road stock to ascertain the need for rehabilitation and regular maintenance
  • estimate additional roads needed to meet the access targets

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key areas of intervention2
Key Areas of Intervention
  • Agricultural productivity
  • Rural income Generation
  • Transport
  • Energy
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Water resources infrastructure and management

www.unmillenniumproject.org

the case for energy infrastructure and services as part of mdg strategy
The case for energy infrastructure and services as part of MDG strategy
  • Energy is not mentioned in the MDGs, but improved access to energy services is critical to:
    • Lower indoor air pollution (e.g. to reduce U5MR)
    • Improve provision of social services (e.g. lighting in schools, refrigeration in health centers)
    • Increase agricultural productivity (e.g. through groundwater pumps)
    • Reduce women’s time poverty (e.g. to halve poverty and achieve gender equity goal)
    • Make energy available for manufacturing industries and other productive uses (e.g. to halve poverty)
    • Halt deforestation and other land degradation (?)

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energy services for the mdgs
Energy Services for the MDGs
  • Cooking with modern fuels
  • Electricity
  • Motive power/energy to be generated by simple things water pumping etc

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energy choose mdg compatible interventions
Energy Choose “MDG-compatible” Interventions
  • Distribution of efficient cooking stoves
  • Distribution of modern fuels
  • Improved ventilation, chimneys, smokehoods, etc. to reduce the adverse health impacts from cooking with biomass
  • Increase sustainable biomass production (e.g. agroforestry, woodlots or community forestry, area closures, etc.)
  • Off-grid systems together with necessary wiring to schools and health facilities.
  • Facilitate community access to electricity and mechanical power
  • Facilitate the use of electricity in rural communities that are not connected to the grid, through batteries and charging stations
  • Rehabilitation and extension of the electric power grid/connection etc
  • Motive power infrastructure and fuels/diesel generator etc

www.unmillenniumproject.org

energy possible rural targets
Energy Possible Rural Targets
  • Enable the use of modern fuels and devices for 50% of those who at present use traditional biomass for cooking.
  • Support x% of the population in adopting improved cook-stoves and measures to reduce the adverse health impacts from cooking with biomass.
  • Ensure by 2008 that all schools and health facilities have access to electricity.
  • Provide access to modern energy services at the community level for all rural communities (in the form of electricity and mechanical power).

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additional energy interventions and policy changes
Additional Energy Interventions and Policy Changes

Interventions:

  • Large-scale electricity generation
  • Tariff collection support (pre-paid metering, for example)

Policies and organization

  • Tariff structure reform/subsidies to poor households etc

www.unmillenniumproject.org

energy estimate resource needs key points
EnergyEstimate Resource Needs – Key Points
  • Choice among electricity technologies (esp. grid- and off-grid) should be based on low cost
  • Community-level interventions scale-up according to size of rural communities
  • The basic needs assessment approach is well-suited to calculating needs for ACCESS to energy services

www.unmillenniumproject.org

energy needs assessment
Energy Needs Assessment
  • Population & Infrastructure Data
  • # of HH
  • # of communities
  • km of LV/MV/HV line
  • Coverage Targets (Access )
  • Modern fuels for 50% of those who currently use biomass
  • Electricity for urban and peri-urban areas
  • Electricity and motive power for rural communities

x

Covered Population

  • Input Ratios:
  • kg fuel per hh
  • kWh of electricity per hh/yr
  • Cost Data
  • Cooking: Cookstoves and fuel
  • Electricity: ($ per km line; connection cost; $/kWh)

&

Total Costs

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key areas of intervention3
Key Areas of Intervention
  • Agricultural productivity
  • Rural income Generation
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Water resources infrastructure and management
  • Transport
  • Energy

www.unmillenniumproject.org

water supply and sanitation rural choose interventions
Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural)-Choose Interventions
  • Provision and operation of infrastructure for domestic water supply
  • Construction and operation of sanitation facilities including drainage systems and facilities for disposal of sullage and wastewater
  • Hygiene education including awareness campaigns in primary schools, through community based organizations, media, and so on
  • Provision and operation of infrastructure for water supply and sanitation for schools and health facilities.

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water supply and sanitation rural define targets
Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural)-Define Targets

MDG Target 10

Taking 1990 as the baseline year:

  • Halve the proportion of people in rural areas without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015.
  • Halve the proportion of people in rural areas without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015, aiming for each target village to achieve full sanitation coverage and to end the practice of open defecation.

www.unmillenniumproject.org

water supply and sanitation rural estimating needs key points
Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural):Estimating Needs - Key Points
  • Define technology mix to be used each year (e.g. boreholes vs. rainwater collection, latrines vs. septic tanks)
  • Include rehabilitation of existing but defective infrastructure
  • Include full operation and maintenance costs
  • Millennium Project needs assessment tool is available

www.unmillenniumproject.org

key areas of intervention4
Key Areas of Intervention
  • Agricultural productivity
  • Rural income Generation
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Water resources infrastructure and management
  • Transport
  • Energy

www.unmillenniumproject.org

case for water resources management and infrastructure as part of mdg strategy
Case for water resources management and infrastructure as part of MDG strategy
  • IWRM needed to manage increasingly scarce water resources effectively (National « Regional « Local)
  • Water storage is required to
    • Mitigate impact of run-off variability to ensure perennial water supply
    • Increase hydropower potential
    • Flood protection
  • No country has generated sustained economic growth without large-scale investments in water storage
  • Irrigation infrastructure required to
    • Increase yields and strengthen potential for cash crops
    • Mitigate impact of inter and intra seasonal precipitation variability
  • Use of climate forecasting

www.unmillenniumproject.org

water resources infrastructure management interventions
Water Resources Infrastructure & Management - Interventions
  • Provision and maintenance of water storage and other infrastructure for water management (such as watershed management and water conservation, early warning systems, ground and surface storage systems, etc.)
  • Plans, systems and institutions for integrated water resources management, as appropriate.
  • Hydrological monitoring
  • Measures to address the social and environmental issues associated with large-scale water management infrastructure

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water and sanitation illustrative model
Water and sanitation-illustrative model
  • INSERT MODEL BUTTON HERE

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thinking about country needs
Thinking about Country Needs
  • Are there costed sectoral strategies?
  • What interventions/coverage/target are relevant for your country?
  • How do these investments need to be scaled up?
  • How to ensure that sectoral NA work is integrated into national planning processes?

www.unmillenniumproject.org

thinking about country needs1
Thinking about Country Needs
  • Who are the key stakeholders to be engaged to:
    • identify interventions,
    • set targets,
    • provide data
    • agree on unit costs, with review by technical experts
  • How to ensure that targets and interventions are monitored and evaluated periodically?
  • What institutional changes, if any, are needed?

www.unmillenniumproject.org