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THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT MORAL ISSUES. CH. 9, CHAFFEE. MORAL COMPASS: THE THINKER’S GUIDE TO MORAL DECISION-MAKING. MAKE MORALITY A PRIORITY DISCOVER THE “NATURAL LAW” CONSIDER THE ETHIC OF CARE DEVELOP AN INFORMED INTUITION ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY CHOOSE TO BE A MORAL PERSON

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moral compass the thinker s guide to moral decision making
MORAL COMPASS: THE THINKER’S GUIDE TO MORAL DECISION-MAKING
  • MAKE MORALITY A PRIORITY
  • DISCOVER THE “NATURAL LAW”
  • CONSIDER THE ETHIC OF CARE
  • DEVELOP AN INFORMED INTUITION
  • ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY
  • CHOOSE TO BE A MORAL PERSON
  • CONSIDER THE ETHIC OF JUSTICE
  • PROMOTE HAPPINESS
  • JUSTIFY MORAL JUDGMENTS
moral component
MORAL COMPONENT?
  • You consider purchasing a research paper from an online service, and you plan to customize and submit the paper as your own.
  • A friend of yours has clearly had too much to drink at a party, yet he’s insisting that he feels sober enough to drive home.
  • The romantic partner of a friend of yours begins flirting with you.
  • You and several others were involved in a major mistake at work, and your supervisor asks you to name the people responsible.
moral component1
Moral component?
  • Treatment of other people or animals.
  • Not a clear right vs. wrong answer
  • Positive and negative consequences to oneself or others
  • Guided by values to which you are committed and that reflect a moral reasoning process that leads to the decision
  • Concept of moral responsibility
ethics and morals
Ethics and morals
  • Principles that govern our relationships with other people
  • The ways we ought to behave
  • The rules and standards that we should employ in the choices we make
    • Right vs. wrong
    • Just vs. unjust
    • Good vs. bad
    • Fair vs. unfair
    • Responsible vs. irresponsible
ethics morals value
Ethics & morals & value
  • Greek word “ethos”: moral purpose or character
  • Cultural customs or habits
  • Latin word “moralis’: custom
  • Private and public nature of the moral life
  • Social context of cultural customs
  • Possessing intrinsic worth that we prize, esteem and regard highly based on clearly defined standards
activity
activity
  • Think of someone you know whom you consider to be a person of outstanding moral character. Fix this person in your mind and write down this person’s qualities that qualify him/her as a morally upright individual.
  • Compare your idea of a moral person with that of your partner’s.
become a philos0pher of values
Become a philos0pher of values
  • Think deeply and clearly about these profound moral issues
  • Study the efforts of great thinkers through the ages
  • Discuss these concepts with others in a disciplined and open-minded way
  • Construct a coherent ethical approach grounded on sound reasons and commitment to truth
what are my moral values
What are my moral values?
  • Do we have a moral responsibility toward less fortunate people?
  • Is it wrong to divulge a secret that someone has confided in you?
  • Should we eat meat? Should we wear animal skins?
  • Should we try to keep people alive at all costs, no matter what their physical or mental condition?
  • Is it wrong to kill someone in self-defense?
  • Should people be given equal opportunities, regardless of race, religion, or gender?
  • Should you ‘bend the rules’ to advance your career?
  • Is it alright to manipulate people into doing what you want if you believe it’s for their own good?
  • Is there anything wrong with pornography?
  • Should we always try to take other people’s needs into consideration when we act or should we first make sure that our own needs are taken care of?
  • Should we experiment with animals to improve the quality of our lives?
evaluate your values
Evaluate your values
  • Clearly articulated
  • Well-grounded?
  • Ill defined?
  • Tenuously rooted?
  • Coherent whole, consistent with one another?
  • Fragmentation and inconsistency?
  • source?
moral theories
Moral theories
  • I would follow my conscience (the part of our mind formed by internalizing the moral values we were raised with)
  • I do not know what I would do: a morally agnostic theory of morality
  • I would do whatever would improve my own situation: pragmatic theory of morality
  • I would do what God or the scriptures say is right: a theist theory of morality
  • I would do whatever made me happy: hedonist moral theory
  • I would follow the advice of an authority: authoritarian moral theory
  • I would do what is best for everyone involved: altruistic moral theory
analyzing moral dilemmas
Analyzing moral dilemmas
  • Describe the decision that you would make in this situation and explain why
  • Identify the moral value(s) or principles(s) on which you based your decision.
  • At the conclusion of the activity, compare the moral values that you used. Consistent?
  • Describe your general conclusions about your own moral compass.
thinker s guide to moral decision making
Thinker’s guide to moral decision-making
  • Make morality a priority
  • Recognize that a critical-thinking approach to ethics is based on reason
  • Include the ethic of justice in your moral compass
  • Include the ethic of care in your moral compass
  • Accept responsibility for your moral choices
  • Seek to promote happiness for oneself and others
  • Seek to develop an informed intuition
  • Discover the “natural law” of human nature
  • Choose to be a moral person