Mould control through the use of leather aftercare products • Some known facts as a review about Mould and suggestions how to deal with it when it strikes again on Leather and Leather goods.
Mould control through the use of leather aftercare products • Some known facts as a review about Mould and suggestions how to deal with it when it strikes again on Leather and Leather goods. • The missing link in the leather industry and products which are more than just a Band-Aid
Missing Link Tanner Manufacturer Sales Consumer Institutes
Missing Link Tanner Manufacturer Sales Consumer Institutes
Very quick Biology Lesson • All molds are fungi, but not all fungi are molds. • In general, mold and mildew are different names for the same thing — a very simple life form that lacks the ability to photosynthesize. Mold uses enzymes to digest nutrients from other organic materials.For example from Leather.
Very quick Biology Lesson • Moulds are a special group of fungi. • They start out as a single spore. It is so tiny that it • can only be seen through a microscope. • Spores are blown by the wind or carried by insects. • When a spore lands on a suitable surface, such as a piece of leather, it germinates. • The spore breaks open to send out a tiny thread – the first hypha. • This hypha grows down into the leather, soaking up food as it goes, and dividing into many different hyphae. Eventually, the leather becomes filled with mould hyphae. • After that comes time to reproduce. The mould sends up a thread into the air, which divides many times, till it finally produces many, many spores. With thousands of these structures, millions of spores are grown, ready to be carried to a new site by wind or insects
Aspergillus niger • Aspergillus is a group of molds which is found world-wide, The genus Aspergillus includes over 185 species.
Mould • When mould grows into leather, usually it does not cause major damage. The mould soaks up its food from the parts of the leather that do not contribute to strength. • The biggest problem with moulds in leather is caused by a change in colour - staining, and leave spots and grain marks that will make finished leather look inferior. This causes downgrading of the finished product, and can cost a lot of money. • Once moulds are inside the leather, simply cleaning the surface will not solve the problem, since the moulds will grow right out again. • Moulds can also consume some important additives used in leather making, such as fat liquors, tannins and so on
What do moulds need to grow? • Water. Mould will not grow on dry materials. If finished leather is dried and kept dry, there will be no mould. However, allowing leather to get wet will encourage mould growth. Leather in the wet blue state is very prone to mould growth. • Acidity. Mould grows best when it is in a slightly acid environment. Pickled pelts are too acid for fast mould growth. Very alkaline conditions do not support much mould growth. • Warmth. Mould likes it best between 25 and 30 deg. C. That is why it is worse in summer, or in the tropics. Keeping leather stored in cool conditions will not stop mould, but will slow its growth a little. • Oxygen. Without oxygen, moulds cannot grow. If wet blues or pickled pelts are baled and pressed into a tightly packed state, mould will only grow on the outside. There is too little oxygen inside the pack. • Nutrients. Moulds soak up the soluble parts of leather as food. Unfortunately, we cannot remove these to control mould growth. Some leathers (like vegetable tanned leathers) have more nutrients, and support especially vigorous mould growth.
Fungicides • TCMTB [2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole • OITZ [octyl isothiazolone or 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one • MBT [sodium mercaptobenzothiazole or 2-mercaptobenzothiazole • CMC Phenolic blend [para chloro meta cresol, • Zinc 2-pyridinethiol-1-oxide (ZNP • Carbendazim 3-iodopropargyl-N-butylcarbamate (IPBC • OPP ortho-phenylphenol • TCP 2,4,6-trichlorophenol • BMC 2-benzimidazolyl-methylcarbamate • P Sodium Pyrithione • DIMTS diiodomethyltolyl-sulfone
Fungicides fail for six reasons • 1. fungicide does not control a problem mould that appears in the Tannery • 2. concentration is too low to control a problem mould. • 3. fungicide formulation is unstable • 4. stage of application is not appropriate • 5. fungicide loses activity due to interaction with process components: oxidising or reducing agents, alkalies or acids, greases. • 6. fungicide is ineffective on splits due to poor penetration or reasons 1 to 5 above.
When mould protection has failed • rather than increase fungicide concentration, it is usually best to • immediately change to, • or add, a different active ingredient
Demands for new fungicide with different improved properties • Environmental/Consumer Pressure • Increased awareness of the potential toxic hazard of chemicals used in consumer products has • resulted in greater pressure from environmental and consumer groups to reduce the use of such • materials. • Legislative and regulatory changes • The main features of Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/CE (BPD) is to establish of a positive list • of active substances and a National authorisation of Biocidal Products containing active • substances on this positive list. PT 9 is the Product Type for Fibre, leather, rubber and • polymerised materials preservation, and the dossier for the active substances must be submitted • from 1.05.2008 to 31.10.2008.
Impact as a result of three EU legislation • The Dangerous Preparations Directive (DPD-99/45/EC), • the Marketing and Use/Limitations Directive (76/769/EEC) • The Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD–67/548/EEC)
New Fungicide • Regulatory approval • Carbendazim free • TCMTB free • Low toxicity/ecotoxicity
Nystatin • Nystatin is a polyeneantifungaldrug to which many molds and yeasts are sensitive, including Candida spp. Nystatin has some toxicity associated with it when given intravenously, but it is not absorbed across intact skin or mucous membranes. It is considered a much safer drug for treating oral or gastrointestinal fungal infections. • ………Nystatin is often used as prophylaxis in patients who are at risk for fungal infections…. • and Like many other antifungals and antibiotics, nystatin is of bacterial origin
Salicylic acid • Chemical name2-Hydroxybenzoic acid • Chemical formulaC7H6O3 • Molecular mass138.123 g/mol • Melting point160 °C • Boiling point211 °C (2666 Pa) • Density1.44 g/cm³ (at 20 °C) • pKa2.97CAS number[69-72-7]
Mold inhibition by spraying nystatin on wet-blue • 中国皮革CHINA LEATHER2005 Vol.34 No.5 P.12-15 • 制霉菌素用于蓝湿革防霉研究(Ⅰ)--蓝湿革表面喷涂制霉菌素试验 Mold inhibition of wet blue by nystatin (I)-the experiments of spraying nystatin on the wet-blue刘彦 谢艳娟 张明辉 摘 要：制 霉菌素的防霉研究表明:制霉菌素的水溶液和酒精溶液的防霉效果相差不大.本研究均采用制霉菌素的水溶液进行试验,以便于今后生产应用.将制霉菌素涂布于查 氏培养基表面的防霉试验表明:需用3×105μ/mL剂量,才能完全抑制蓝湿革上生长的11种霉菌.制霉菌素防霉应用试验表明:用不同浓度制霉菌素悬浮液 喷涂后,再接种霉菌孢子悬浮液的蓝湿革,在31℃恒温恒湿培养箱中放置一个月后,喷涂2×105μ/mL以下制霉菌素的蓝湿革上,均可观察到不同程度的霉 斑;喷涂3×105μ/mL制霉菌素的蓝湿革放置3个月内未见长霉菌,因此制霉菌素喷涂蓝湿革具有较好的短期防霉效果.关键词：蓝湿革 防霉 低毒 制霉菌素分类号：TQ59 文献标识码：A • 基金项目：四川省科技攻关项目(04GG009-010-3)资助作者简介：刘彦,女,1964年生,博士,副教授 作者单位：刘彦（四川大学皮革化学与工程教育部重点实验室,成都,610065） 谢艳娟（四川大学皮革化学与工程教育部重点实验室,成都,610065） 张明辉（四川大学皮革化学与工程教育部重点实验室,成都,610065） 参考文献：岑沛霖,蔡谨.工业微生物学[M].北京:化学工业出版社,2000林应锐.防霉与工业杀菌剂[M].北京:科学出版社,1987程天恩,张一宾. 防菌防霉手册[M].上海:上海科学技术文献出版社,1993刘彦,张明辉.霉变蓝皮上微生物的分离纯化.皮革科学与工程,2003,1(13):8-12达龙.天然矿泉水中微生物的药物控制研究.食品工业科技,1999, 20(2):12-14Bart Gottenbos,Henny C,Van der Mei,et al. In viro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of covalently coupled quatenary ammonium silane coatings on silicone rubber. BIOMATERIALS,2002(23):1 417-1 423文武,杨伟和.新型皮革防霉剂3号的研究.中国皮革,2002,31(13):29-33单志华.制革工艺学[M].北京:科学出版社,1999Lao-chuan Hsieh. Antimicrobial effect of various of plant extracts.Food Microbiology,2001,18(1):35-41收稿日期：2005年1月27日出版日期：2005年3月3日 • 请看PDF全文
Leather camera case left in the basement over the summer months in Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Canadian Conservation Institute • FreezingFreezing is a quick method of killing actively growing mould. However, although a mould’s vegetative growth will freeze and break down, the spores are able to withstand the cold temperatures and remain viable.
A container is a closed system with it’s own ”weather” inside • Humidity: • is in the air when the container doors are closed • is contained in the cargo and packaging and is evaporated throughout the voyage • enters from the outside through so called container breathing.
Blue Jeans • Trichoderma strain, T. reesei, is also commercially exploited to produce enzymes that degrade cellulose. Quantities of the fungus are sold commercially to manufacturers of stone-washed blue jeans, laundry detergents, paper, and chicken feed. This important strain was picked up during World War II, degrading a cotton tent on Bougainville Island in the South Pacific.
A statue of a Pharoah looks silently on as archaeologists disturb sacred ruins.
Casimir IV Jagiellonb. Nov. 30,1427 - d. June 7, 1492)grand duke of Lithuania (1440-92) and king of Poland (1447-92).
Ramesses II revealed that 89 different species of fungi (including Aspergillus) were growing in and on the mummy. 370 separate colonies of fungi were found
Container received with mouldy furnitures • 642 pieces received • 387 were rejected due to mold, this would mean that their customers would have at least another • 12 weeks delayed on their delivery in the home
Multimaster helped • clean • apply the Mold Killer • technician was there to • clean and • treat, • un-wrap, and • re-wrap. • The retailer provided 4 members of staff and a warehouse area to facilitate the process. • average it took 10 minutes to clean each sofa with Soft Cleaner • then allow to dry (it was a very warm period in the UK at the time!) • then about 10-15 minutes to treat each sofa with mold killer. • So the guys were processing 15-20 3 seaters and 25-30 2 seater pieces per day.