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Windows Programming .NET Overview Yingcai Xiao From the Webster’s New World Dictionary: 1. A person who computes.

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what is a computer

From the Webster’s New World Dictionary:

1. A person who computes.

2. A device used for computing (an electronic machine which by means of stored instructions and information, perform rapid, often complex calculations or compiles, correlates, and selects data).

What is a Computer?

what is a program and what is programming

Programs:

stored computer instructions for data processing.

Programming

= Data Structures + Algorithms

Professor Donald E. Knuth

http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~knuth/

What is a program and what is programming?

what is windows programming

Windows Programming:

Program for the Windows platform?

Program for the Internet on the Windows platform!

What is Windows Programming?

what is net

.Net is a framework for developing OS-platform-independent, programming- language-independent, web-enabled, distributed applications.

What is .NET?

slide6

Source Code for Language 1

Source Code for Language 1

Language 1 Compiler on OS1

Language 1 Compiler on OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

  • Traditional Compilation (Linking)
os independent code intermediate languages

The trend to support OS-independent binary code is to compile the source code into the binary format of an intermediate language.

  • And to provide an interpreter for the intermediate language on each OS to translate the binary code of the intermediate language into the native binary code of the OS.

OS-Independent Code: Intermediate Languages

slide9

OS-Independent Compilation: Intermediate Language

Source Code for Language 1

Language 1 Compiler on OS1

Language 1 Compiler on OS2

Intermediate Binary Code

Intermediate Code Interpreter OS1

Intermediate Code Interpreter OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

program statements are interpreted one at a time during the run time

Java Intermediate Language: Java Bytecode

Java Source Code (.java)

Java Compiler (javac) on OS1

Java Compiler (javac) on OS2

Java Bytecode (.class)

Program statements are interpreted one at a time during the run-time.

Java Interpreter on OS1 (java)

Java Interpreter on OS2 (java)

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

jit compiler

An interpreter interprets intermediate code one line at a time. Slow execution.

  • A JIT (Just-In-Time) Compiler compiles the complete code all at once just into native binary code before execution. Faster execution.

JIT Compiler

all programming statements are compiled at compile time

JIT Complier: Java Bytecode Compiler

Java Source Code (.java)

Java Compiler (javac) on OS1

Java Compiler (javac) on OS2

Java Bytecode (.class)

All programming statements are compiled at compile time.

Java JIT Compiler on OS1

Java JIT Compiler on OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

net os platform independence

MSIL: Microsoft Intermediate Language

Source Code for Language 1

Language 1 Compiler on OS1

Language 1 Compiler on OS2

MSIL Code

.NET OS-Platform-Independence

MSIL JIT Compiler on OS1

MSIL JIT Compiler on OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

jit compilation in net

All MSIL code are JIT-compiled to native binary code before execution. No run-time interpretation, faster execution.

JIT Compilation in .NET

net common language runtime

To make .NET language independent, CLR (Common Language Runtime) is defined as the runtime environment.

  • CLR defines CTS (Common Type System) which should be followed by all languages to be used in the .NET framework.
  • Syntax: int, for, ..
  • Semantics: multiple inheritance is not allowed in CTS
  • The code that follows CTS standard is called managed code.
  • regular C++ supports multiple inheritance
  • managed C++ does not support multiple inheritance

.NET Common Language Runtime

net language independence

CLR: Common Language Runtime

Source Code for Language 1

Source Code for Language 2

Language 1 Compiler on OS1

Language 2 Compiler on OS2

MSIL Code Confirming CTS (Managed Code)

.NET Language-Independence

CLR on OS1

CLR on OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

net architecture for language and platform independence fan in and fan out on msil

Source Code for Language 1

Source Code for Language 2

Language 1 Compiler on OS1

Language 2 Compiler on OS2

MSIL Code Confirming CTS (Managed Code)

.NET Architecture for Language and Platform Independence

(fan-in and fan-out on MSIL)

CLR on OS1

CLR on OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

cli common language infrastructure

A specification defines an environment for multiple high-level languages to be used on different computer platforms.

  • Created by Microsoft based on .NET, standardized by MS, Intel, HP and others, ratified by ECMA and ISO.
  • .NET is an implementation of CLI for desktop systems.
  • .NET Compact Framework is an implementation of CLI for portable devices.
  • Open Source implementations: Mono development platform (Novell), Portable .NET (dotGNU)

CLI : Common Language Infrastructure

slide21

Source Code for Language 1

Source Code for Language 2

Language 1 Compiler on OS1

Language 2 Compiler on OS2

CIL (Common Intermediate Language) Code

Confirming CTS (Common Type System)

CLI (Common Language Infrastructure) Specification

Open Architecture for Language and Platform Independent Programming

CLR for OS1

CLR for OS2

Binary Code for OS1

Binary Code for OS2

OS1

OS2

slide22

Even though, CLI/CTS/CLR can make a program written in any language to run on any platform, the entire program (including all libraries used) has to be on the platform before running.

Can we have part of a program on one computer and another part of the same program on another computer?

Distributed Computing. A program is divided into multiple parts and different parts are distribute on different computers.

e.g. virtual surgery.

net is web enabled and distributed

To run distributed code on the web, we need a standard way to register the code and a standard way to access the code.

  • Registration:
  • UDDI Registry: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration.
  • Access:
  • SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
  • WSDL: Web Service Description Language

.Net is Web-enabled and Distributed

slide25

.NET Architecture for Web-based Distributed Computing

Client 1

UDDI Registry 2

SOAP

Client 2

UDDI Registry 1

SOAP

Web Service 1

WSDL Interface 1

Web Service 2

WSDL Interface 2

WEB

web service example

.NET Passport (one login for the whole Internet)

  • www.passport.com (run by Microsoft)
  • www.ubid.com (An online auction shop using Passport web service)
  • Windows Live (one location to get all you need from the Internet)
  • http://get.live.com/ (run by Microsoft)
  • Windows Live ID is replacing Passport ID.

Web Service Example

net framework compositions

Common Language Runtime (CLR ): provides the runtime environment for MSIL code.

  • .Net Framework Class Library (FCL) : provides standard code for building common .Net applications.
  • Classes in FCL are grouped into namespaces.

.NET Framework Compositions

slide28

.Net Framework Class Library

System

Windows

Web

Data

(Database)

Enterprise Services

XML

(Data Description)

String,

Forms

(GUI)

UI

Services

Connection

DataSet

XmlDocument

net framework class library

The most important groups are “the gang of four”:

  • Windows Forms: for building GUIs for .Net applications, language independent.
  • ASP.NET: Active Server Pages for .Net, for building web-accessible applications.
  • ADO.NET: ActiveX Data Objects for .Net, for accessing data in a database.
  • Enterprise Services: for accessing COM+ services (transactions, object pooling).

.Net Framework Class Library

net application types

.Net Framework Class Library

Common Language Runtime

Browser

Accessible

Remote Applications

Local

Applications

Other Applications

Web Services

Distributed

Applications

.NET Application Types

OS

net com

MFC: Microsoft Foundation Class, code reuse within an application (process)

  • COM: Component Object Model, code reuse across applications (processes)
  • DCOM: Distributed COM, code reuse across systems
  • COM+: Internet-based Enterprise COM, code reuse across the Internet
  • .NET: COM+ 2.0, all COM+ services are available in .NET, even those not in managed code, interoperable with COM-based applications

.Net & COM

net my services

Applications providing access to personal information over the Internet.

  • Passport (authentication)
  • .NET Inbox (e-mail)
  • .NET Documents (Internet-accessible storage)
  • .NET Alerts (sending alert messages)
  • .NET Calendar
  • .NET Contacts
  • .NET Wallet (payment inform)
  • .NET List (to-do list)

.NET My Services

net enterprise servers

Internet Information Services (IIS): web server

  • Commerce Server: e-commerce server
  • SQL Server: database server
  • Exchange Server: MS exchange services
  • Mobile Information Server: wireless server
  • Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server:
  • firewall, proxy, …
  • BizTalk: B2B (Business-to-Business) server

.NET Enterprise Servers

a common language for the internet

Tim Berners-Lee

  • ASCII text (ISO/IEC 8859-1) is platform-independent.
  • HTTP (Hyper Text Transport Protocol)
  • e.g.
  • GET wp.html
  • Assembly Language for the Internet
  • HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
  • High-level language for the Internet)
  • hyper text: text that describes other text
  • tags: type definition of text in text
  • <title>WP</title>
  • all tags are predefined in HTML
  • only system defined types, no user defined types
  • Recognizable by all types of computers. (World Wide Web)

A Common Language for the Internet

a common language for the internet36

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

Allow user defined tags (types)

  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)

Standards for defining objects for the Internet

Based on XML

A Common Language for the Internet

  • WSDL (Web Service Description Language)

Standards for describing web services for the Internet

Based on XML