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Unit Process Life Cycle Inventory - A Project in Environmentally Benign Design and Manufacturing (EBDM). Professor Jacqueline Isaacs, Northeastern University Professor Janey Twomey, Wichita State University Professor Michael Overcash, Wichita State University Cambridge, MA August 29, 2009.

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unit process life cycle inventory a project in environmentally benign design and manufacturing ebdm

Unit Process Life Cycle Inventory - A Project in Environmentally Benign Design and Manufacturing (EBDM)

Professor Jacqueline Isaacs, Northeastern University

Professor Janey Twomey, Wichita State University

Professor Michael Overcash, Wichita State University

Cambridge, MA

August 29, 2009

presentation in three parts
Presentation in Three Parts
  • History of events – Jackie Isaacs
  • Implementation – Jan Twomey
  • Strategic Issues – Michael Overcash
history pathway to 2009

History: Pathway to 2009

Professor Jackie Isaacs

Northeastern University

isaacs mfg lca research focus
Isaacs Mfg /LCA Research Focus
  • Two Areas:
    • Powder metallurgy and responsible nanomanufacturing
  • Process-based cost models built to simulate engineering economics of unit processes in part fabrication
  • Use materials from cost models as input for LCA models
  • Issues with impact assessment…
responsible nanomanufacturing

Enviro & Economic Uncertainties

Regulatory Issues in MA

Social & Ethical Issues

Responsible Nanomanufacturing
  • Determine best safety practices and screening methods for nanomaterials as well as impact of possible releases

EHS

Assessment,

Tox Screening& EOL Impacts

  • Perform Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of developing processes / products and evaluate tradeoffs for EHS (environmental health and safety) with costs

with UML

with Benneyan

  • Promote informed policymaking

with Bosso NSF NIRT

  • Advocate productive public discourse

with Sandler NSF NIRT

Integrated Systems Approach Required

for Appropriate and Efficient Commercialization

slide6

Goal & Scope

Inventory Analysis

Life Cycle Assessment Framework

InventoryAnalysis

Interpretation

Impact Assessment

ImpactAssessment

ISO 2005

Interpretation

process based cost modeling

Raw Material

  • Labor
  • Energy
  • Equipment
  • Building
  • Overhead
  • Tools
  • Maintenance
Process Based Cost Modeling

Input Variables

Intermediate Variables

Output Variables

# of lines of Arc vessels

Total time to make

required batches

Production Vol

g/yr

Variable Costs

Working hours

per year

Square feet space

input production

Building space

per vessel

No of batches

based on

prod vol.

Labor hours for

input production

Vessel size

Yield

Fixed Costs

Catalyst

composition

Moles of helium

used per batch

Cost of helium

over entire annual

production

Cost of catalyst

Catalyst weight

per batch

Cost of catalyst

over entire annual

production

Cost of helium

cost modeling simulation to seek ehs tradeoffs
Cost Modeling /Simulation to Seek EHS Tradeoffs

Monte Carlo Simulations

Cost Modeling Scenarios

Ok, Benneyan, Isaacs

Journal of Industrial Ecology

Special Nanotechnology Issue 2008

Worker Protection

Worker Protection

Worker Protection

Healy, Dahlben, Isaacs

Journal of Industrial Ecology

Special Nanotechnology Issue 2008

Analyses provide useful guidance for decisionmakers

Distinctions among scenarios would allow more informed decisions…

in the meantime pathway to present
In the Meantime… Pathway to Present
  • Goals:
    • Create a tool set for the efficient lci of manufactured products based on the individual unit processes that sum to a product lci
    • Stimulate a large community to both develop and use the uplci tools on diverse manufactured products
    • Begin with low complexity products as examples
background
Background
  • Origins were process/product improvement = EBDM
  • Funding leadership – U.S. National Science Foundation (Dr. Delcie Durham)
  • Continual international participation
evolution of ebdm events
Evolution of EBDM Events
  • 2001: WTEC Study on EBM
  • 2001: Transport. Indstr Workshop Yipsilanti, MI
  • 2003: EBDM Workshop (Sustainable Mfg I) Birmingham, AL
  • 2003: Green Engineering, Sandestin, FL
  • 2004: Sustainable Mfg II: Global Conference on Sustainable Product Design and LCE, Berlin, Germany
  • 2005: Sustainable Mfg III, Shanghai, China
  • 2006: EBDM for Sustainable Economic Competitiveness, Arlington VA
  • 2006: Sustainable Mfg IV, São Carlos, Brazil
  • 2007: Sustainable Mfg V, Rochester, NY
unit process lci project
Unit Process LCI Project
  • Built on earlier uplci studies by
    • J. Allen and M. Overcash, June, 2001
    • C. Murphy, et. al., ES&T 2003 vol.37, p.5373
  • 2003 Alabama Breakout Session Concept
    • Concept conveyed to Alting and Seliger
  • 2006 Brazil Conference
    • concept identified again
    • international solicitation for participant
    • No non-U.S. volunteers
ebdm uplci team alphabetical order
EBDM UPLCI Team (Alphabetical Order)
  • Bert Bras, Georgia Tech
  • Andres Clarens, Virginia Tech
  • Delcie Durham, University of South Florida
  • Tim Gutowski, MIT
  • Jackie Isaacs, Northeastern University
  • Leon McGinnis, Georgia Tech
  • Cynthia Murphy, University of Texas, Austin
  • Michael Overcash, Wichita State University
  • Matthew Realff, Georgia Tech
  • Steve Skerlos, University of Michigan
  • Jan Twomey, Wichita State University
continued planning
Continued Planning…
  • EBDM Team meetings at Northeastern University to discuss concepts and methodology
    • October 2007
    • February 2008
  • Draft Generic uplci methodology finalized
    • February 5, 2008
  • EBDM Team votes on name…..
    • “unit process life cycle inventory” (uplci)
    • October, 2008
implementation of uplci methodology

Implementation of UPLCI Methodology

Professor Janet Twomey

Wichita State University

implementation of uplci methodology16
Implementation of UPLCI Methodology
  • U.S. Dept. of Energy interest in wind energy
    • Primarily nonfuel electricity where mot of the life cycle inventory is in manufacturing
    • Focus on green manufacturing tools as a means to improve wind energy
    • Needed life cycle information that focused on many individual decision possibilities and not just wind versus coal data
first steps
First steps
  • Selected unit processes in cluster, such as materials removal
  • Learned how to combine or how to search for data from industry, published articles, handbooks, other books, etc.

- Helps when one group will do many uplci

  • Began to examine a non-complex, but widely used product, the brace for aircraft members, called a clip
slide18

Amada Brake Press

Cut Profile

Form Bend

Finn Power Turret Punch

A Generic Sheet Metal Clip

Multi-CAM Router

Validation

slide19

Taxonomy of process

http://cratel.wichita.edu/uplci

  • Website intended for collaborative effort
  • Operates somewhat like a Wiki
    • Anyone can download content
    • you have to have permission to add content

Instructions

Log in to add comments, content

slide20

Expanded taxonomy

Content is in Word format

Can be down loaded by anyone

New or updated content can be added with author and date only by users with log in

strategic and specific issues for uplci

Strategic and Specific Issues for UPLCI

Professor Michael Overcash

Wichita State University

background from chemical manufacturing life cycle inventory tools 1990 present
Background from Chemical Manufacturing Life Cycle Inventory Tools, 1990 - present
  • Heuristics – 20 – 25
  • Used to create process flow diagrams of entire plant and then lci outputs
  • 700+ chemicals
  • Major lessons learned
    • Transparency is vital
    • 90:10 rule is the focus
    • Creates substantial power to lower cost and expand user community
    • Not just inputs and energy, but decision-making
manufacturing unit process life cycle inventories
Manufacturing Unit Process Life Cycle Inventories
  • Manufacturing plants represent the transition and use of materials (metals/polymers) and chemicals into a final product
  • Uplci thus links the chemical lci world to the product manufacturing world
  • Goal to encourage development of other uplci using similar format, so that additive property is achieved
slide24
Draft Generic Format: Includes Seven Sections (I to VII)(User is not expert in unit process, but is interested in product)
  • Description of unit process operation (such as general discussion of milling machine)
    • Picture of machine and process
    • High production plant
    • Representative unit process
  • Mass input-output for process
    • functional unit floor-to floor of workpiece (focus is on lci of product not plant)
    • not limited to mass I/O of workpiece, but focused on machine
draft generic format section iii
Draft Generic Format: Section III
  • Description of the overall sequence by which a workpiece arrives, is operated on, and departs from the unit process
    • Basic energy offloading and unloading (standby mode)
    • Idle energy of tool positioning (partial power mode)
    • Tip energy of operation (full power mode)
draft generic format sections iv vii
Draft Generic Format: Sections IV-VII
  • List of parameters affecting energy or mass loss (critical phase that differentiates life cycle use from unit process design intentions)
    • Reduction of parameters to only major variables
    • Allows user to identify how to refine
  • Detailed explanation and equations for linking major variables to the energy and mass loss equations (allows users to follow clearly and apply to all other applications of the uplci)
    • Strengthens understanding that a representative case is used
  • Example application fully worked out to show mass loss and energy estimates for use of the uplci(every variable and equation used in the example should be in section V. )
  • References
lessons learned with uplci
Lessons Learned with uplci
  • Important concept is to remember the systems goal of product life cycle
        • Even low complexity products may be 10 – 100 uplci
        • Specialized resources can dive deeply on other issues
  • Keep user perspective
        • Focus is on a specific product, like a gearbox or ceiling fan
        • Have default data in uplci to allow use
path forward
Path Forward
  • Learn how to reduce to most important variables, but show others
        • Provides data beyond CO2
  • Many of the important data are not as easily available and so need transparent approximation concepts are important
        • Idle time (partial standby mode)
  • Reviewing stage = new territory
        • Industrial context
        • Not easy to adopt idea of review outside very unique user case
        • Process flow diagrams (approximation)
important path forward issues
Important Path Forward Issues
  • Uplci principles and harmonization
  • Encouragement of others to write these documents (multiple per unit process can be good, but needs to be consolidated)
  • Taxonomy
    • Is substitution of similar processes reasonable?
    • Allow objectives of research on improvement?
discussion questions to address
Discussion Questions to Address…
  • Can your research effort add to
      • The database of unit processes?
      • The review and refinement of these uplci?
  • How does your research effort intersect the development of the CO2PE/uplci project (such as process improvement)?