The Augustan Principate. The End of Imperial Expansion. Prima Porta Statue.
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The End of Imperial Expansion
“Rome’s tradition of government, down to Julius Caesar, was characterized by distributed power and multiple sources of decision. That was never to return.”J.A. Crook, Cambridge Ancient History (10, 2nd ed.  113)
From Republic to Principate
Augustus as Super-Patron of Roman State
“When I held my thirteenth consulship [2 BCE], the Senate, the equestrian order, and the entire Roman people gave me the title of ‘father of the country’ and decreed that this title should be inscribed in the vestibule of my house, in the Julian Senate house, and in the Augustan forum on the pedestal of the chariot which was set up in my honor by decree of the Senate.”Augustus, Res Gestae, 35
Assessments of Augustus’ Reign
“In my sixth and seventh consulships [28 and 27 BCE], after I had put an end to the civil wars, having attained supreme power by universal consent, I transferred the state from my own power to the control of the Roman Senate and the people. For this service of mine I received the title of Augustus by decree of the Senate, and the doorposts of my house were publicly decorated with laurels, the civic crown was affixed over my doorway, and a golden shield was set up in the Julian Senate house, which, as the inscription on this shield testifies, the Roman Senate and people gave me in recognition of my valor, clemency, justice, and devotion. After that time I excelled all in authority, but I possessed no more power than the others who were my colleagues in each magistracy.”Augustus, Res Gestae, 34
“It was said… ‘that filial duty and state necessity were merely assumed as a mask. It was really from a lust of sovereignty that [Augustus] had excited the veterans by bribery, had, when a young man and a subject, raised an army, tampered with the consul’s legions, and feigned an attachment to the faction of Pompey….Citizens were proscribed, lands divided, without so much as the approval of those who executed the deeds. Even granting that the deaths of Cassius and the Brutii were sacrifices to the hereditary enmity…still Sextus Pompey had been deluded by the phantom of peace, and Lepidus by the mask of friendship. Subsequently, Antony had been lured on by the treaties of Tarentum and Brundisium, and by his marriage with the sister, and paid by his death the penalty of a treacherous alliance. No doubt there was peace after all this, but it was a peace stained with blood.”Tacitus, Annals, 1.10