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SARAR/PHAST: A participatory approach for building human capacity and empowering communities. RON SAWYER. Planning and Implementation of Sustainable Sanitation in Urban/Semi-urban settings – A need for development of existing tools STOCKHOLM 25-26 August 2008. THE CHALLENGE.

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sarar phast a participatory approach for building human capacity and empowering communities

SARAR/PHAST: A participatory approach for building human capacity and empowering communities

RON SAWYER

Planning and Implementation of Sustainable Sanitation in Urban/Semi-urban settings –

A need for development of existing tools

STOCKHOLM

25-26 August 2008

slide2

THE CHALLENGE

It is not easy to shift from

conventional to ecological sanitation systems.

Toilets are deeply ingrained

within a specific cultural and personal context.

slide3

IT´S NATURAL

The natural functions of urinating and defecating are frequently referred to with euphemisms:

“number one and number two”

“answering the call of nature”

“taking care of necessities”

“using the toilet“

“going to the bathroom”

“taking care of business”

“relieving oneself”

“doing”

slide4

SANITARY BEHAVIORS

  • Toilet behaviors are learned at a very early age,
  • assimilated into daily routine and then
  • simply not spoken about.
  • The school toilet experience is often traumatic!
  • Shame Disgust Ridicule Abuse
slide5

Why can talking toilets make a difference?

  • To raise awareness about the serious risks to human health, to the environment and the survival of human societies.
  • To share ideas on workable alternatives to conventional practices.
  • To stimulate attitude change among peer group members.
  • Conversation provides a context for testing new concepts and positions —a kind of rehearsal for initiating change itself.
slide6

TALKINGTOILETS

Isitreally so difficulttotalkabouttoilets?

Once basic taboos are broken,

people tend to be fascinated by the subject.

  • The challenge:
    • HOW to get people talking about toilets in a meaningful and
    • constructive manner?
slide7

SARAR METHODOLOGY

Self-esteem

Associative strengths

Resourcefulness

Action planning

Responsibility

Participatory methodologies can play a crucial role in overcoming resistances, making decisions and changing behavior.

slide8

SARAR - Historical Highlights

Dr. Lyra Srinivasan - Humanistic psychology, concientizacion, Gandhi.

Asia (VERC), Africa, Latin America (Sarar Capacitación SC) and USA (World Education).

1983-1989 - PROWWESS/UNDP --adapted to W&S sector.

UNICEF –MOH/Mexico -– Diarrhea control package

2000-2005 –- WSP/UNDP-WB /PROWWESS

PHAST Initiative: Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation with WHO and collaboration of UNICEF, etc.

SANRES - EcoSanRes = SARAR + Ecosan : El Salvador / Bolivia / Mexico

UNDP / WaterAid / UNICEF / WHO etc. -- S Af, Mozambique, Kenya, Central Asia, China, Mongolia

slide9

SARAR PARTICIPATORY METHODS & TOOLS

Assessment

Planning

Didactic/ Information

Monitoring

For Training and

Community Promotion and Education

slide10

SARAR

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE CONTINUUM

I would like to

demonstrate the

solution to others.

7

6

I'm ready to try

some action.

5

I see the problem

and I want to know more.

CAPACITY- BUILDING

AWARENESS-RAISING

4

Yes, there is a problem,

But I have my fears.

3

Yes, there is a problem,

But I have my doubts.

2

There may be a problem,

But it is not my responsibility.

1

There is no problem.

slide11
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE CONTINUUM

Diagnostic tool to assess the psyco-social context of a community or group, in order to determine what communication strategy or approach is most appropriate.

slide13
WATER AND NUTRIENT FLOW MAPS

A community mapping exercise helps the community to identify critical problems and posible interventions, including toilets, greywater and solid waste management.

slide14
Unserialized Posters

Pocket Chart

Creative/expressive needs assessment tool for externalizing interpersonal social dynamics and cultural values and taboos.

Quantitative –qualitative assessment of toilet use and preferences –including gender, socio-economic and territorial variables.

slide15
NURSE TANAKA

CONTAMINATIONROUTES

To identify common local health problems and determine which could be prevented through WASH interventios.

Raise awareness feacal-oral infection vectors and identify possible barriers.

slide16
THESANITATIONLADDER

Permits the community to identify and compare the range of basic sanitation technologies available to them -- and to decide which options would be most appropriate given the particular local context.

slide17
ECOSAN PUZZLE

3-PILE SORTING

To assess and compare hygiene and sanitation related behaviors according to risk criteria and relative feasability to modify or imporave.

Increases understanding of sanitation as a system and stimulates reflection on relative risk, gender roles, etc.

slide18
STORY WITH A GAP

PLANNING POSTERS

Planning tools for visualizing and setting goals and priorityzing the steps leading to the desired change.

slide21
KYRGYZSTAN

August 1999 --SARAR /PHAST Workshop in Osh, Ferghana Valley -UNICEF - SIE/IWS (Secrétariat International de l'Eau ). --

Development of local tool kits and trained trainers.

April 2003 -- Ecosan Workshop – Village leaders from Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Central Asian Alliance for Water (CAAW), SIE/IWS, UNDP/BDP

  • 2008 – WECF - CAAW – HfH : Empowermnent and Local Action Program–
  • Village Water Committees
  • Village Youth Parliament
  • Hygiene and sanitation promotion
  • Construction of household & school ecosan toilets
  • Reuse: Training of biofarmers' communities
  • Demonstrations on safe sanitation and water usage

Toilet siting: DRIVERS = Fertilizer and convenience

slide22
MOZAMBIQUE

March 2000 - Lichinga, Niassa Province, Bringing Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Into the Mix – WaterAid – UNDP – ESTAMOS – Govt.

Sanitation ladder  Sanitation matrix (scoring) + PHAST = Entry point for fossa alterna and arborloo program (P. Morgan)

September 2002 - WaterAid Stakeholder workshop, Zambezia, Mozambique.

2008 -Feliciano dos Santos -

Goldman Prize Winner, Moçambique

http://www.hesperian.org/Santos.php

Fossa Alterna: Permanence – convenience - fertilizer

slide23

REACHING THE MDGS:

EQUITY AND JUSTICE AS WELL AS RESULTS

slide24

Though less than expected, resources are available for simple, cheap interventions that can accelerate progress towards the MDGs. Results –based management has been the key to increasing access to education and health care, but it does little to change the political, social and economic conditions that make people poor. Unless there is a better balance between the drive to achieve measurable impact, investments in long-term poverty-eradication measures, and the creation of space where poor people can discuss and develop strategies for achieving equality and social justice, it will not be as easy to make poverty history as many people think.

Reaching the MDGs: equality and justice as well as results

REF – Thomas Franklin –– Development in Practice, Vol 18, No 3, June Senior policy advisor HIV/AIDS UNICEF

2008-08-06

slide25
IN OTHER WORDS, THEHOWMATTERS.
  • Rapid impact is biased in favour of short-term responses to specific problems
  • People living in extreme poverty face a bewildering array of more complex issues deeply engrained within the fabric of society.
  • The international community has a commitment to the human-rights principles of self-determination, participation and inclusion.
  • Pursuit of the quick-fix can distort the relationship between the rich… and those in need of assistance.
transactional analysis
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
  • adult <-> adult
  • parent <-> child
  • child <-> child
  • Adult: more balanced, mature, communication between equals, respect
  • Parent: critical (authoritarian),
  • protective (overprotective).
  • Child: obedient, submissive, rebellious, dependent
  • Niño/niña:playful, creative, mischievous
  • Contexts:
    • Family
    • Work
    • Community
slide27

Subject: warmest greetings

Date: Sun, 24 Aug 2008

From: teshome regassa tregassa@hotmail.comDEAR RON SAWYER HOW ARE YOU AND YOUR FAMILY MEMBERS? HOW IS EVERYTHING?MY WIFE AND DAUGHTER AND MYSELF ARE FINEI COULD NOT GET YOUR ADDRESS / DID NOT  HEAR FROM YOU FOR LONG TIME. I AM WORKING  FOR THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH  OF ETHIOPIA AS TEAM LEADER  FOR THE TRAINING OF HEALTH EXTENSION WORKERS. RON  WHAT YOU DID AS PHAST IS FANTASTICALLY ATTRACTIVE TO EVERYBODY IN ETHIOPIA. IF WE MEET OR COMMUNICATE,  WE CAN DO SOME MIRACULOUS THINGS. WE CAN MERGE WITH HEALTH EXTENSION WHICH IS INNOVATIVE AND FLASHIP PROGRAMME  IN ETHIOPIA.  I DID MY MSC IN UK  IN HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROMOTION/ HEALTH COMMUNICATION/ WHICH IS REALLY VERY HELPFUL TO WORK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS OF THIS TYPE.LOOKING FORWARD TO HEAR  FROM YOU VERY SOON,WITH VERY BEST REGARDS GOD BLESS YOUTESHOME REGASSA

slide28

¡Gracias por su atención!

rsawyer@sarar-t.org

SARAR TRANSFORMACIÓN S.C.

AP 8, Tepoztlán Morelos 62520 México

Tel: +52 (739) 395-0364 /+52 (739) 395-7505

sarar@laneta.apc.org

http://www.sarar-t.org