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Ohio REEL Project Research Experiences to Enhance Learning Bill Donovan, The University of Akron Prabir Dutta, The Ohio State University Pat Woodward, Director (OSU) ‘Vinnie’ Subramaniam, Assoc. Director (OSU) Prabir K Dutta, The Ohio State University, PI

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slide1

Ohio REEL Project

Research Experiences to Enhance Learning

Bill Donovan, The University of Akron

Prabir Dutta, The Ohio State University

Pat Woodward, Director (OSU)

‘Vinnie’ Subramaniam, Assoc. Director (OSU)

Prabir K Dutta, The Ohio State University, PI

Bill Donovan , University of Akron, Co-PI

Allen Hunter, Youngstown State University, Co-PI

Larry Mayer, Columbus State Community College, Co-PI

Richard Taylor, Miami University, Co-PI

slide2

Where we started:

  • Most faculty colleagues can agree on two impressions from teaching introductory chemistry courses:
    • Students do NOT learn as much as we would like.
    • When we get these students involved in (traditional) undergraduate research projects, they respond very differently with thoughtful and productive involvement.

Could ALL students in the introductory chemistry courses reap some of the benefits of involvement in research?

© 2005 Ohio Undergraduate Research Consortium. REEL is funded by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division

ohio reel project r esearch e xperiences to e nhance l earning
Ohio REEL ProjectResearch Experiences to Enhance Learning

Partner Institutions

University of Akron (UA)

Bowling Green State University (BGSU)

Capital University (CU)

Central State University (CtlSU)

University of Cincinnati (UC)

Cleveland State University (CSU)

Columbus State Community College (CSCC)

University of Dayton (UD)

Kent State University (KSU)

Miami University of Ohio (MU)

Ohio University (OU)

University of Toledo (UT)

Wright State University (WSU)

Youngstown State University (YSU)

The Ohio State University (OSU)

One of 3 NSF fully funded Undergraduate Research Collaboratives (URC)

http://ohio-reel.osu.edu/

undergraduate research collaboratives nsf objectives

Undergraduate Research Collaboratives: NSF Objectives

To expand the reach of undergraduate research to include first- and second-year college students

To enhance the research capacity, infrastructure, and culture of participating institutions, thereby strengthening the nation’s research enterprise.

Research should be in the chemical sciences (including interdisciplinary areas) and should provide exposure to research of contemporary scientific interest that is addressed with modern research tools and methods.

“Projects should allow students to create new knowledge that is potentially publishable by providing exposure to research of contemporary scientific interest that is addressed with modern research tools and methods.”

© 2005 Ohio Undergraduate Research Consortium. REEL is funded by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division

goals ohio reel project

Goals: Ohio REEL Project

Increase the retention and graduation rates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields.

STEM baccalaureate grads (FY 2003) 8943 in Ohio (78/100,000 residents)

Ohio has consistently lagged the region: 12.9% below the national average and 36th in the nation

Number of STEM graduates in Ohio improved from 1980 to 1990, but dropped in 2000 (compared to national average), increasing 2000-2003

Introduce laboratory-based research into 1st and 2nd year chemistry courses, impacting 15,000-17,000 students statewide by 2010.

Generate new knowledge in the chemical sciences.

Establish statewide faculty and student teaching and learning communities.

ohio 8 th grade student performance

Ohio: 8th Grade Student Performance

Ohio is a national leader in science performance at the 8th grade level.

ohio science and engineering graduates

Ohio: Science and Engineering Graduates

Ohio is 12.9% behind the national average, and ranks 36th in the nation

goals ohio reel project8

Goals: Ohio REEL Project

Increase the retention and graduation rates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields.

Introduce laboratory-based research into 1st and 2nd year chemistry courses, impacting 15,000-17,000 students statewide by 2010.

Experience Science

Develop, implement, and evaluate two generations of research modules

Integrate the research modules into the curriculum at all the partner institutions

Generate new knowledge in the chemical sciences.

Establish statewide faculty and student teaching and learning communities.

innovation
Innovation

Research faculty take leadership to develop module

  • Several institutions participate in developing modules: develop new collaborations
  • Research modules have local flavors
  • Ownership by faculty

Ownership by students

  • Students write and critique proposals
  • Relevance to subjects of societal interest (pollution & the environment, biological chemistry, green chemistry, energy, etc.)
  • Student creation of the research proposal is critical
innovation10
Innovation
  • Build research capacity: students and faculty
    • Generate new knowledge: interest to faculty
    • Research Experience motivates students
    • Introduce more technology experience
  • Transform teaching and research culture
characteristics of a research module
Characteristics of a Research Module
  • Research exploration
    • Outcome is not known in advance
    • Results can be used to guide higher level research explorations
  • Natural integration with existing course structure
    • Reinforces concepts that are currently being taught
  • Involves all phases of the research process
    • Emphasis on the scientific method
  • Engages students with problems of societal interest
    • Show the relevance of chemical research to modern problems
  • Involves both group and individual work
    • Create student learning communities
  • Variations allow for multiple iterations & transferability
    • Transform the culture of teaching chemistry to the masses
    • Long term sustainability and widespread adoption are critical

© 2005 Ohio Undergraduate Research Consortium. REEL is funded by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division

goals ohio reel project12

Goals: Ohio REEL Project

Increase the retention and graduation rates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields.

Introduce laboratory-based research into 1st and 2nd year chemistry courses, impacting 15,000-17,000 students statewide by 2010.

Generate new knowledge in the chemical sciences.

Organic/Biological – Combinatorial synthesis of new small molecule organics, catalysis, etc.

Environmental/Analytical – Water, Air and Soil quality

Inorganic/Materials - Combinatorial synthesis of new pigments, phosphors, etc.

Establish statewide faculty and student teaching and learning communities.

module design teams mdt
Module Design Teams (MDT)
  • Organic/Biological Chemistry
    • Miami University (Rich Taylor)
    • Ohio State University (Chris Callam)
    • Ohio University (Klaus Himmeldirk)
    • University of Cincinnati (Deborah Lieberman)
    • University of Toledo (Xuefei Huang, Steve Sucheck, Treasure Sucheck)
  • Analytical/Environmental Chemistry
    • Ohio State University (Susan Olesik, Ted Clark)
    • Cleveland State University (Robert Wei)
    • Central State University (Suzanne Seleem, Anthony Arment)
    • Wright State University (Suzanne Lunsford)
    • Bowling Green State University (John Cable)
  • Inorganic/Materials Chemistry
    • Ohio State University (Patrick Woodward)
    • Youngstown State University (Allen Hunter, Tim Wagner)
    • University of Akron (Bill Donovan)
    • University of Dayton (Howard Knachel)
    • Kent State University (Roger Gregory, Scott Bunge)
goals ohio reel project14

Goals: Ohio REEL Project

Increase the retention and graduation rates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields.

Introduce laboratory-based research into 1st and 2nd year chemistry courses, impacting 15,000-17,000 students statewide by 2010.

Generate new knowledge in the chemical sciences.

Establish statewide faculty and student teaching and learning communities.

Forge partnerships through module design teams

Seed and encourage innovations in teaching 1st & 2nd year courses

Research is planned and carried out in groups

Publish student results through the web, as well as local and statewide conferences

Through evaluation and feedback best practices are identified and shared

challenges
Challenges

Inspiring students

  • Value derived from utility
  • Value derived from choice and control

Total faculty involvement

  • Chairs on board
  • Success motivates

Curricular adjustments

  • Replace 30% of laboratory with modules

Instructional Associate training

Infrastructure growth

Sustainability??

module design considerations
Module Design Considerations

Practical

Are the costs, waste, manpower, and instrumentation demands reasonable and sustainable?

Research Oriented

Do the experiments lead to the generation of new research results and knowledge?

Educational

Do the students understand the underlying concepts? Does it reinforce the existing course material? Does it build critical thinking skills?

Motivational

Do the students get excited about research? Do they develop a sense of ownership of the project?

non toxic inorganic pigment design osu chem 123 general chemistry
Non Toxic Inorganic Pigment DesignOSU Chem 123 – General Chemistry

CdS

Cadmium Yellow

HgS

Vermillion

Pb3O4

Red Lead

Inorganic Pigments – Most red and orange, and many yellow inorganic pigments contain toxic heavy metals, such as Cd, Hg and Pb. There is a strong movement to replace these pigments with more environmentally benign alternatives (this is dictated by law in Europe).

implementation
Implementation
  • Spring, 2006 - 150 students in 6 sections.
  • Approximately 80-90% were honors students (unintended scheduling consequence).
  • One instructor and six TA’s
  • “Control Group” of 275 students in 11 sections, also taught by the same instructor. These students had the same lectures and exams, but traditional labs.
  • New labs extended over six laboratory sessions
  • Students work individually, but results are shared within groups (red, orange and yellow) and throughout the class prior to final presentation and report
pedagogical rationale
Pedagogical Rationale
  • Precipitation Reactions and Stoichiometry (Ch 4)
  • Molecular Orbital Theory & Electronic Structure (Ch 9 & 24)
  • Periodic Trends: Electronegativity & Orbital Overlap (Ch 7 & 23)
  • Origins of Color (Ch. 24)
    • Ligand-to-metal charge transfer excitations
    • Band-to-band transitions in semiconductors
    • d-to-d transitions in transition metal compounds
    • f-to-d transitions in lanthanide compounds
    • HOMO-LUMO excitations in conjugated organic molecules
  • Periodic Crystal Structures & Unit Cells (Ch. 11)
  • X-ray Diffraction & Bragg’s Law (Limited coverage)

The research module combines concepts from throughout the entire 121-123 sequence, as well as some material not traditionally covered. The net result is a capstone experience.

training labs

Synthesis &

Color observation

Training Labs

solid state model kits

Institute for Chem. Education

MO Calculations (Gaussian)

UV-Vis Diffuse Reflectance

X-ray Powder Diffraction

slide22

Unexpected, but nonetheless attractive result (CoCO3)

Students preparing samples

Red – “The color of death”

X-ray Diffraction

student designed pigments
Student Designed Pigments

Annealed as-Precipitated

Monoclinic Tetragonal

BiVO4 BiVO4

Pb(MoO4)2-x-y(CrO4)x(SO4)y

“Chrome Orange”

Pb1-xSnxI2 Pb1-xSnxI2

PbI2 + PbICl + Amorphous

student opinions
Student Opinions
  • What aspects of the project did you like?

Freedom & flexibility to think on your own 68%

Being a part of research to create a new pigment 28%

  • Would you be interested in undergraduate research in a different area? If so, what area?

Yes 80%No 4%No Comments 16%

Cancer Chemical Fuel Cells

Biological Nutritional

Veterinary Medical

Nuclear Chemistry Pharmaceuticals

Forensic Science Zoology

slide25

© 2005 Ohio Undergraduate Research Consortium. REEL is funded by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division

slide26

© 2005 Ohio Undergraduate Research Consortium. REEL is funded by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division

slide27

I just wanted to thank you for a great quarter. I am majoring in biology and Spanish and for the past 2 quarters, due to professors and TAs perhaps, I have become very disinterested in the science part of my curriculum and seriously considered dropping the biology major. However, I feel like my interest in science has been restored this quarter! You were so much more engaging than my other professors which made such a difference! I think you have probably received a great deal of criticism of the REEL labs from everyone, but I did enjoy it. Planning and doing the lab was very frustrating, and at first I thought that I hated it. But, getting the data back and analyzing my own pigment creation was very cool. Having to do this and learn at the same time, and wanting to understand something that I had made really enforced the material! So, please do not be too discouraged with everyone's comments; I think it is great that the chemistry department is trying to revise its labs and even though REEL lab could probably use some revision, of course, it was a great tool to learn more about what we were doing in class.

© 2005 Ohio Undergraduate Research Consortium. REEL is funded by the National Science Foundation, Chemistry Division

shortcomings and solutions
Shortcomings and Solutions
  • The labs were too rushed and not always in-synch with the lecture material (jumping around in the text)
    • Some of the “training lab exercises” will be moved to Chemistry 121 and 122 (where they naturally fall in the text), and more time will be provided for their completion
  • The scope of research possibilities was too large, which led to some confusion
    • Different origins of color (d-to-d transitions, charge transfer transitions, organic dyes, etc.) will be specifically targeted, but the target will change from year to year
  • Demands on student time are very high toward the end of the quarter
    • Pigment design project will be shifted to fall earlier in the quarter
  • Demands on faculty, staff and TA time were high and unsustainable
    • Utilize undergraduate lab assistants/mentors to assist in data collection and student mentoring (from pool of previous students who went through the experience)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Most students get excited at the idea of research, but they can also become easily frustrated and confused if the research project is not carefully thought out and well defined
  • A second trial, where the bugs have been worked out, is needed to ascertain what level of frustration and confusion is inherent to the process.
  • Implementation of the REEL program will have a big impact on the way almost all of our 1st and 2nd year courses are taught. Critical thinking will be entrenched in the curriculum.
  • Student publication is possible, even with 1st year students (4 students are working on this over the summer)
  • It is important to find the right balance between student ownership/design and efficient research results
  • Instrumentation issues (including computations) require imaginative thinking (& additional funding) to implement in large classes
dinuclear lanthanide complexes howard knachel shawn swavey dayton spring 06
Dinuclear Lanthanide ComplexesHoward Knachel, Shawn Swavey – Dayton (Spring ’06)
  • Synthesis of bimetallic lanthanide complexes (six terminal ligands + 1 bridging ligand)
  • Chem Majors General Chem Lab (14 students)
  • Students worked individually, but duplicate assignments
  • 3 lab sessions
  • Samples sent out for C/H/N analysis

Results are now being written up for a regular paper!

slide31

Mixed Transition Metal FluoridesTim Wagner - Youngstown State (Summer ’06)

  • Synthesis of pigment materials of general formula KMF3, where M will be a combination of two or more metals
  • General Chem Lab (14 students and 5 lab sessions)
  • Students worked in pairs
  • 7 new compounds characterized by X-ray diffraction
external evaluation jane kahle bill boone stacey bretz miami univ
External EvaluationJane Kahle, Bill Boone & Stacey Bretz - Miami Univ.
  • Evaluation will be carried out at each institution as new modules are tested and implemented. The following aspects of the program will be evaluated:
    • Student attitudes and backgrounds (questionnaire)
    • Course content (comparison of laboratory content before and after implementation of REEL)
    • Student learning (module specific tests)
    • Classroom observation, instructor & student interviews
    • Student tracking (retention, STEM majors, STEM graduates, participation in traditional undergraduate research)
more information
More Information….

P117: Environmental chemistry research in the quantitative chemical analysis course

Susan Olesik and Ted Clark, OSU

Monday at 10:15, STEW 310