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BASINS Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Non-point Sources Tools for Watershed and Water Quality Assessment. GISHydro99 1999 ESRI User Conference. Andrew T. Battin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water. Mission of EPA’s Office of Science and Technology.

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slide1

BASINS

Better Assessment Science Integrating

point and Non-point Sources

Tools for Watershed and

Water Quality Assessment

GISHydro99

1999 ESRI User Conference

Andrew T. Battin

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Office of Water

mission of epa s office of science and technology
Mission of EPA’s Office of Science and Technology
  • Mission Highlights
    • To provide technical assistance and support to the Agency’s Effluent Guidelines and to the Water Quality Criteria and Standards Program
    • To develop guidance on specific water quality issues
    • Develop methods, models, procedures to support nationwide watershed studies

Problem Solving and Technical Tools

basins development team
EPA

Russell Kinerson

Andrew Battin

Bill Tate

Paul Cocca

Marjorie Wellman

Aqua Terra Consultants

Tetra Tech Inc.

USDA ARS & Texas A&M (Blacklands Research Center)

Mimi Dannel

Ed Partington

Hira Biswas

Bryan Goodwin

David Wells

BASINS Development Team
examples of watershed management programs supported by epa
Examples of Watershed Management Programs Supported by EPA
  • Water quality assessment and analysis
  • Watershed management
  • Source water protection
  • TMDL program

Varying problems - similar approaches

commonalities of watershed management programs
Commonalities ofWatershed Management Programs
  • Characterization:understand the “big picture”. What is contained with the watershed? What are the activities, uses, sources, and resources?
  • Source identification:what potential sources are within the watershed? Identify location and spatial distribution, potential magnitude of loading/stress, location/type of impacted resources.

1

2

slide6

Commonalities ofWatershed Management Programs

  • Develop and evaluate management alternatives:taking action requires an evaluation of the alternatives, consideration of the benefit/cost. Analysis considers what, where and how to control/manage pollutants/stressors.
  • Communicate watershed information to the public:present, describe, teach, and summarize environmental information and actions for the public stakeholders.

3

4

the clean water act and tmdls
The Clean Water Act and TMDLs
  • Goal of CWA
    • Ensure that the Nation’s waters protect aquatic life, wildlife and human health
  • Tools
    • TMDLs are one of many tools authorized by the CWA to implement applicable water quality standards
  • Primary CWA Tool
    • NPDES permits for point sources - Nonpoint sources are not subject to NPDES permits
  • NPDES Permits
    • Contain effluent limits on pollution discharged, including water quality-based effluent limits when necessary to achieve water quality standards
303 d list of waters
303(d) List of Waters
  • Each state shall assemble and evaluate all existing and readily available water quality data and information to develop the Section 303(d) list of waters.
  • Each state shall identify those water quality-limited segments requiring TMDLs.
  • Water quality-limited segment:
    • Any segment where it is known that water quality does not meet applicable WQS, even after the application of effluent limits by the CWA.
303 d summary of key points
303 (d) Summary of Key Points
  • List includes only those waters where technology-based limitations or other required actions are not expected to implement WQS.
  • List is based on existing and readily available data.
  • List is dynamic and changes over time to reflect new information, current practices, and new control activities.
  • Prioritization is not necessarily by waterbody, but can be prioritized by class (e.g., type of pollutant).
the tmdl program
The TMDL Program

TMDL =  WLAi +  LAi + MOS

 WLAi: Sum of waste loads (point sources)

 LAi: Sum of loads (non point sources)

MOS: Margin Of Safety

problem statement 1 point source
Problem Statement #1Point Source

Criteria/standard

(Allowable Capacity)

C

mg/l

Cb

Impaired reach

Miles

P1

problem statement 2 non point source

Criteria/standard

C

mg/l

Existing condition

Allocation Scenario

Time

Problem Statement #2 Non-point Source
the tmdl program13
The TMDL Program
  • Five key steps for TMDL development
    • Problem statement
    • Definition of endpoint
    • Source identification
    • Linkage between source and receiving water
    • AllocationAnalytical tools can be used to support each step of the TMDL “process”
analytical needs to support water quality management programs
Analytical Needs to Support Water Quality Management Programs
  • Monitoring data
    • Represents condition of system
    • Provides the backbone for most analysis and modeling
  • Spatial/locational data
    • Point sources, highly erodible areas, construction areas...
  • Statistical analysis and mapping tools
    • Water quality trends, waterbody comparisons, proximity of impaired water quality to potential sources
  • Assessment and modeling tools
    • What are the relative contributions of the various pollution sources?
    • What will happen if we develop the watershed?
    • How can we evaluate planning and managementalternatives?
analytical needs cont
Analytical Needs (cont.)
  • Spatial analysis capabilities
    • Ability to relate causes and effects through mapping/overlays
  • Compilation, management, and facilitated access to historical data
    • Trend in land use changes, point source loadings, monitoring
    • Population growth - how much? Where? ...
  • Source characterization and quantification
    • Inventory of sources
    • Magnitude and significance of sources
  • Prediction of future conditions and implications of management
    • What is the best solution to meet objectives and regulatory requirements?
slide16

Watershed

Small Area Studies

Land Use Units

Subwatersheds

Rivers/Streams

Sub 1

Urb

Sub 2

Urban landuse with BMPs

Sub 3

Ag

Sub 4

Receiving

Water

Rural landuses with BMPs

Sub 5

slide17

BASINS V2.0 System Overview

Nationally Available Data

Base

Cartographic

Data

Environmental

Background Data

Environmental

Monitoring Data

Point Source/Loadings Data

Assessment Tools

Target

Assess

Data Mining

Watershed Reporting

  • Models
  • HSPF - NPSM
  • QUAL2E
  • TOXIROUTE
  • Model Post-Processors

Target

Assess

DM

Decision-Making

Analysis

Watershed Management

.

TMDLs

.

Source Water Protection

.

Stormwater

State and Local Data

gis data data categories
GIS DataData Categories
  • Base Cartographic Data
  • Environmental Data
base cartographic data
Base Cartographic Data
  • Definition:
    • Data that enhances the ability to interpret maps by providing a known frame of reference
  • Examples:
    • EPA regional boundaries
    • Major roads
    • Populated place locations
    • State and county boundaries
    • Urbanized area boundaries
basins environmental data
BASINS Environmental Data
  • Data capturing information on spatial and temporal changes in environmental conditions

GIS

Physical Data

(Landscape Features)

Monitoring Data

(Environmental Response)

Pollution Sources

(Environmental Stressors)

basins data products environmental data
BASINS Data ProductsEnvironmental Data
  • Pollution sources
    • Permitted dischargers (PCS)
    • Toxic Release Inventory sites (TRI)
    • Industrial Facility Dischargers (IFD)
    • Mineral Industry Locations
    • Superfund sites (NPL)
    • Land Use/ Land Cover
    • Population centers

GIS

Landscape

Sources

Monitoring

basins data products environmental data23
BASINS Data ProductsEnvironmental Data
  • Physical landscape features
    • USGS Watershed boundaries
    • RF1 and RF3 Stream networks
    • Land Use/ Land Cover
    • Elevation (DEM)
    • Dam locations
    • Soil characteristics

GIS

Landscape

Sources

Monitoring

basins data products environmental data24
BASINS Data ProductsEnvironmental Data
  • Environmental monitoring
    • Water Quality station summaries (STORET)
    • Bacteria station summaries (STORET)
    • Water Quality Observation Data
    • National Sediment Inventory (NSI)
    • USGS Stream flow (gaging stations)
    • Fish and Wildlife Advisories
    • Shellfish Contamination Inventory
    • Clean Water Needs Survey
    • Meteorological (477 station locations)

GIS

Landscape

Sources

Monitoring

meteorological data in basins

Example of GIS Coverage

of Meteorological

Station

WDM

INF

Identify appropriate Meteorological

Station from GIS

NPSM Meteorological

Station Selection Screen

Meteorological Data in BASINS
types of tools included in basins 3 categories of tools
Types of Tools Included in BASINS(3 Categories of Tools)
  • Spatial analysis and overlays (GIS capability)
    • Facilitate examination of multiple types of information
    • Access to full functionality of ArcView
  • BASINS custom suite of integrated tools
    • Targeting
    • Assessment
    • Data Mining
    • Watershed Reporting
  • BASINS utilities
    • Import new or local data sets (watersheds, landuse)
    • Re-classify landuse, DEM
    • Watershed Delineation
custom tools included with basins

Target

Assess

DM

Custom Tools included withBASINS
  • Target:Provides broad-based evaluation of watershed water quality and point source loadings.
  • Assess:Watershed-based evaluation of specific water quality stations and/or dischargers and their proximity to waterbodies.
  • Data Mining:Dynamic link of data elements using a combination of tables and maps. Allows for visual interpretation of geographic and historical data.
  • Watershed Reporting:Automated summary report system. Allows users to select types of information to be included. Automated generation of associated graphics and tables.

Regional Level

Watershed Level

Station Level

target
Target

Overall summary of monitoring data

Select Target option

from menu

Ranking

of

watershed

Distribution

of monitoring

data by CU

assess
Assess

Distribution

of monitoring stations by CU

Select Assess

option from menu

Average condition for selected pollutant by CU

Station summaries for selected pollutant

data mining
Data Mining

Spatial

distribution of monitoring stations

WQ

stations

WQ

parameter

and code

WQ

summaries

basins custom tool watershed report
BASINSCustom ToolWatershed Report

Information available:

  • Administrative and locational report
  • Point source discharge summary
  • Dam locations
  • State soil series data
  • Land use summary
  • Stream system inventory
  • Toxics (NSI, TRI)
  • STORET water quality monitoring
basins utility tool import
BASINSUtility ToolImport
  • The import tool gives users the capability to add their own data into the BASINS system:
    • Watershed boundaries (8-digit or smaller)
    • Landuse
    • Stream Networks
    • Elevation (DEM) Polygons
    • Water Quality Observation Data
basins utility tool landuse re classification
BASINSUtility ToolLanduse Re-classification
  • Users can re-classify part of the landuse theme or the entire theme interactively
  • Users can re-classify their imported landuse data
  • Re-classification to various levels of detail
    • Anderson Level 1 to Level 2
    • Create more detailed levels
  • Weigh the potential significance of land use changes on water quality
basins utility tool watershed delineation
BASINSUtility ToolWatershed Delineation
  • Allows users to interactively subdivide a USGS 8-digit watershed into smaller sub-watersheds using mouse point-and-click inputs.
  • Sub-delineated watersheds and underlying data are then available for more detailed modeling.
  • It provides capability to modify the previous delineations.
modeling process

Data Collection (historic, field)

Model Input Preparation

Parameter Evaluation

Phase I

Calibration

Verification

Post-Audit

Phase II

Analysis of Alternatives

Phase III

Modeling Process

Need to plan ahead and follow a structured modeling plan

modeling strategy

Factors to Consider

Lumped

Distributed

Watershed

LU distribution

Soils

Topo/weather stn. loc.

Data (weather, PS)

Management

Planning

Regulatory

Impact

Alternative analysis

2 Segments

8 Segments

Modeling Strategy
  • Need to define a suitable level of segmentation
overview of model categories
Overview of Model Categories
  • Landscape models
    • Runoff of water and dissolved materials on and through the land surface
    • Erosion of sediment, and associated constituents, from the land surface
  • Receiving water models
    • Flow of water through streams, into lakes and estuaries
    • Transport, deposition, and transformation in receiving waters
basins modeling system
BASINS Modeling System
  • NPSM (HSPF v11)
    • Integration of Point and Non-Point Source Modeling
    • Instream flow routing and water quality
    • Specialized agricultural chemical modeling
      • Pesticides
      • Nutrients
    • Other Chemicals
      • Metals
      • BOD/DO
    • Pathogens
    • Sediment
    • Air Deposition (under development)
    • Continuous hydrologic simulation - Hourly time step
how npsm fits into basins

Landuse and pollutant

specific Data

B

A

Landscape data

C

Meteorological

Data

Point

Sources

D

Windows interface

GIS

Landuse

Distribution

E

Core Model

HSPF

HSPF

Stream

Data

Post Processing

F

How NPSM fits into BASINS
interpretation of modeling results for better decisions
Interpretation of Modeling Results for Better Decisions
  • Graphing Capabilities
    • Spatial and temporal representation of data
    • Analysis of magnitude and significance of sources
    • Model calibration (observed vs. modeled)
  • Statistical Functions
    • Graphical representation of geometric and arithmetic means
    • Statistics related to exceedances of a user-defined limit
  • Comparative analysis
    • Evaluation of various management alternatives
    • Developing Allocation Scenarios
    • Consensus building with stakeholders
graphing capabilities an example of calibration
Graphing CapabilitiesAn example of Calibration

User-defined

x- and y- axis

scales

NPSM

output

USGS

data

Selected plot

statistical functions related to threshold exceedances
Statistical Functions Related to Threshold Exceedances

Plot of

geometric or

arithmetic

mean

Selected

statistical

function

Table of

exceedance

information

User-defined

step length

and

exceedance limit

comparative analysis for developing allocation scenarios
Comparative AnalysisFor developing Allocation Scenarios

Output from

1st

simulation

Load

reduction

for selected

landuse

Output from

2nd

simulation

basins models continued
BASINS Models continued
  • QUAL2E
    • Low flow euthrophication modeling
    • Point source impact evaluation
    • BOD/DO, nutrients, bacteria
    • Steady State/Dynamic water quality modeling
    • Spatial representation of chemical concentrations in the stream
future directions system
Future Directions - System
  • Redesign of System
    • Lifecycle Development - System, Data, Models, etc.
  • DBMS
    • Formalized Database Management Scheme - maintainable, updateable, and reusable
    • Default Data - physiographic and other hydrologic data
    • Management of all spatial and non-spatial data;
    • Away from flat files, towards RDBMS and in some instances ODBMS
future directions tools
Future Directions - Tools
  • Pursuit of a client/server architecture
    • “Partitioning of labor”
  • Component-based approach on the client
    • Development of discrete tools that can be extended
    • Modular and maintainable software construction
  • Emphasis on Better Data Management and Reuse
    • Build capacity to address long term needs
    • Minimize effects of employee turnover and learning curve
    • Move modeling investigations towards a “production environment”
future directions new models
Future Directions - New Models
  • Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)
  • Modified Version of Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) Model
  • Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) Model
future directions standardized data interchange

SWAT

NPSM

GWLF

QUAL2E

Future Directions Standardized Data Interchange

Spatial Data Preprocessing

GIS

Tools

  • Watershed Delineation
  • Reach Network
  • Soils Extraction
  • Land Cover Extraction
  • Other (physical aspect, slope)
  • Meteorologic
future directions standardized output processing

SWAT

Output

Manager

NPSM

GWLF

QUAL2E

Future DirectionsStandardized Output Processing
  • Time series analysis
  • Source significance
  • Investigate alternatives
  • Comparative analysis
primary watershed and reach delineation tool
Primary Watershed and Reach Delineation Tool:

Specify DEM Source

Superimpose RF-x Layer

Threshold to control

drainage density

Modify sub-watershed

outlets

Derive spatial attributes

required for modeling!

slide73
GWLF
  • Based on the original model by Haith, D., Mandel, R., and Wu, R. (Cornell, 1992).
  • Represents an intermediate step to continuous simulation watershed models like HSPF and SWAT.
  • Being modified to simulate loadings of bacteria, in addition to flow, sediment, and nutrients.
gwlf tool features
GWLF Tool Features
  • Model being rewritten in Java (Javabeans).
  • Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) to manage all data.
  • Postprocessor to visualize model outputs in several different presentation styles.
  • Model GUI will allow user to enter project related information.
  • Automated report generation tool (inputs, results, scenarios, comparative results and discussion points).
efdc toolkit basic goals
EFDC Toolkit Basic Goals
  • Create a suite of tools to facilitate multi-dimensional hydrodynamic & water quality modeling analyses.
  • Minimize labor intensive activities.
  • Reinforce good modeling practice.
  • Provide a robust data management scheme to maximize the reuse and sharing of data.
  • Facilitate team approach to modeling investigations.
efdc toolkit features
EFDC Toolkit Features:
  • Open client/server architecture.
  • GIS neutral.
  • Targeted to MS WindowsR and NTR .
  • Component-based architecture (Java Swing).
  • GUI for grid generator and interface to EFDC.
  • Post-processor for visualizing model output.
  • RDBMS to manage all aspects of model input data - eventually to be migrated to open ODBMS.
  • Model-to-Model linkages (HSPF -> EFDC).
efdc toolkit
EFDC Toolkit
  • Three principal components:
    • GUI interface to EFDC grid generator to setup physical domain
    • GUI interface to EFDC model
    • Visualization tool
conclusion
Conclusion
  • We need to promote better tool organization and reusability, component interchange, and standardized data exchange formats.
  • Strive for open client/server, component-based architectures.
  • RDBMS to manage all aspects of model input data - eventually to be migrated to open ODBMS.
  • Model-to-Model linkages (HSPF -> EFDC).
  • Move modeling towards a more industrialized process while maintaining quality of analyses.