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Network Architectures for a Multi-Service Broadband Internet George Clapp 973-829-4610 clapp@research.telcordia.com Friday, March 7, 2014 Growth in the Number of Hosts NetSizer http://www.netsizer.com/daily/table.html Worldwide Business-to-Business E-Commerce

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network architectures for a multi service broadband internet

Network Architectures for a Multi-Service Broadband Internet

George Clapp

973-829-4610

clapp@research.telcordia.com

Friday, March 7, 2014

growth in the number of hosts netsizer
Growth in the Number of HostsNetSizer

http://www.netsizer.com/daily/table.html

worldwide business to business e commerce
Worldwide Business-to-Business E-Commerce

7% of $105T total global sales transactions

GartnerGroup

January 26, 2000

http://gartner12.gartnerweb.com/public/static/aboutgg/pressrel/pr012600c.html

access to the internet
Access to the Internet
  • Stanford Institute of Quantitative Study of Society
    • Polled 4,113 individuals; 2,689 households

http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/report/news/february16/internetsurvey-216.html

increasing use with time
Increasing Use with Time

http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/report/news/february16/internetsurvey-216.html

market demand for internet online services

Link

45%

40%

Wheat, First, ...

35%

Yankee

30%

Jupiter

25%

Kagan

20%

Average

15%

10%

5%

0%

Market Demand for Internet/Online Services

Percentage of US Households

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

market demand for high speed access

25

20

Millions of High Speed Users

15

Total BBD + ISDN Market

ADSL (Bellcore)

Cable Modems (Kagan)

ISDN BRI (IDC 98)

10

5

0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Market Demand for High Speed Access
forecasts one view
ForecastsOne View

Source: IDC/Link 9/98

parts of a network
Parts of a Network

Other

carriers

Operations

Premises

Access

Metropolitan

Backbone(long-haul)

Switching

Transmission

access networks
Access Networks

Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC)

Optical Network Unit (ONU)

HUB

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

xDSL

xDSL Modem

Fiber in the loop (FITL)Fiber to the X (FTTx)

ONU

Access

Multiplexer(s)

Wireless

Voice Switch

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)

cable networks
Cable Networks

Information

Head

end

Few hundred thousand homes passed

Primary

Hub

Primary

Hub

Primary

Hub

Few tens of thousands homes passed

Secondary

Hub

Secondary

Hub

Node

Node

Node

Node

Few hundred to thousand homes passed

cable networks another view with neighborhoods
Cable NetworksAnother View with Neighborhoods

http://www.webproforum.com/hfc_dwdm/

packetcable architecture
PacketCable Architecture

MTA

CableModem

PSTN

CMTS

HFC access network

PSTN Gateway

Media Gateway (MG)

Call Management Server (CMS)

ManagedIP Network

Signaling Gateway

Announcement Server

MG Controller

HFC access network

CMTS

OSS

Back Office

Servers and Applications

MTA

CableModem

PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network

CMTS: Cable Modem Termination System

MTA: Multimedia Terminal Adapter

multimedia cable network systems mcns data over cable system interface specifications docsis
Multimedia Cable Network Systems (MCNS)Data over Cable System Interface Specifications (DOCSIS)

Cable Distribution Network

PSTN Gateway

CMTS

CMTS

PSTN

V

Head End

HFC

HFC

MTA

MTA

cable voice over ip architecture

ILEC/PTO

V

Cable Voice over IP Architecture

VoIP Infrastructure

Cisco

HFC Network

IP Network

CPE

Cable Modem

GigaBit Switch Routers

Packet Over Sonet

VoIP

Trunking Gateway

Integrated

CMTS/HeadEnd Router

cable voice over ip architecture cont d
Cable Voice over IP Architecture cont’d

OC-12

GSR12008

GSR12008

BACKBONE

ROUTERS

OC-12

CAMPUS

SWITCH ROUTER

Cat8500

Cat8500

TRUNK

GATEWAYS

AS5300

V

V

V

V

CMTS/

HEADEND ROUTER

uBR7246

Public Telephone

Network

Optical Nodes

typical hfc frequency plan
Typical HFC Frequency Plan

Upstream

Downstream

  • Upstream and downstream data channels are shared

Ch2

Ch 78

5 MHz

42 MHz

54 MHz

550 MHz

750,860 MHz,

1 GHz

2-way services

AM Video

Digital Video

2-way services

320 Kbps to 10 Mbps

30 to 40 Mbps/6 MHz channel

asymmetric digital subscriber line

Class 5

Switch

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer

ATM

Switch

Fabric

To ISPs,

IXCs

ADSL

ADSL Modem

adsl access
ADSL Access

http://www.3com.com/solutions/dsl/dsl_tech_microwt.html#_Toc389638794

differences between adsl and hfc
ADSL is dedicated point-to-point technology

ADSL peak rate is 6 Mbps downstream; average rate is typically 1-2 Mbps

ADSL upstream rates are typically 1/10 of downstream

Cable modem is a shared bus (typically 100 customers)

Cable modem peak rate is 30-40 Mbps shared over all customers currently active

Cable modem systems typically have a single shared upstream channel at lower rate

Differences between ADSL and HFC
types of xdsl
ADSL

Downstream: 1 Mbps to 8 Mbps

Upstream: 128 kbps to 640 kbps

Range: 12 kft to 18 kft

G.lite

Downstream: 1.5 Mbps

Upstream: 512 kbps

Range: 18 kft

VDSL

Downstream: 13 Mbps to 52 Mbps

Upstream: 1 Mbps to 4 Mbps

Range: 1 kft to 4 kft

For use off of DLC RDT or FTTC ONU

IDSL

Downstream: 128 kbps

Upstream: 128 kbps

Range: 18 kft

No POTS

HDSL

Downstream: 1.544/2.048 Mbps

Upstream: 1.544/2.048 Mbps

Range: 12 kft

Requires Two Pair

Used for commercial T1/E1 service

Taking the majority (70% of U.S. in 1996) market for T1s

SDSL (One Pair HDSL)

Downstream: 784 kbps

Upstream: 784 kbps

Range: 12 kft

No POTS

Types of xDSL
limitations and obstacles to xdsl
Limitations and Obstacles to xDSL
  • Distance limited, Maximum loop length dependent on
    • Data rate
    • Gauge makeup
  • Bridged Tap
  • Load Coils
  • Noise
  • Crosstalk
  • Serving Arrangement - Copper vs. DLC
total loop length
Total Loop Length
  • National Segmentation

41% Urban 50% Suburban 9% Rural

digital loop carrier

40%

35%

30%

25%

Percent of total lines

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

Fiber fed DLC

Copper fed DLC

GTE

NYNEX

BellSouth

Ameritech

U S WEST

National Total

Southwestern

Bell

Bell Atlantic

Pacific Telesis

Digital Loop Carrier
  • Digital Loop Carrier (DLC) Solution Needed
    • Over 20% of US loops served by DLC
    • Much higher in some regions of the country
    • Majority of new growth served by DLC
    • Many of the affluent, suburban, prime ADSL subscriber neighborhoods served by DLC

1998 DLC Deployment

national loop statistics
National Loop Statistics
  • Load Coils
    • Approximately 2% - 8% of all loops are loaded
    • xDSL will not operate over loaded lines
  • Bridged Tap
    • Approximately 70%-80% of all loops have one or more Bridged Tap
    • Bridged Tap are generally not a problem.
    • Lowers SNR by a few dB resulting in small decrease in range
    • Bridged-tap at or very close to the Quarter-wavelength length may cause more problems
slide29

Spectral Compatibility

  • T1 lines and ADSL
    • Near End Cross Talk (NEXT) from T1 can nearly stop downstream ADSL
    • NEXT from ADSL can disrupt T1
  • Repeatered HDSL and ADSL
    • HDSL repeaters can destroy ADSL on long loops.
  • ADSL and VDSL
    • NEXT from ADSL can significantly hurt VDSL signals
  • Unbundling xDSL, and different CLECs
    • May cause incompatibilities between various flavors of xDSL
summary
Summary
  • xDSL allows LECs to deploy high speed data services quickly and economically over their existing infrastructure
  • At the same time, the xDSL addressable market is constrained by the existing infrastructure
  • Loop Qualification is a necessity
  • DLC solutions are necessary to unlock more potential subscribers
emergence of double bubble networks
Emergence of “Double-Bubble” Networks

Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) build out a separate IP network

PSTN

Gateway

Gateway

IP Network

dense wave division multiplexing
Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
  • Multiplex wavelengths into a single optical fiber
  • Lucent WaveStar OLS 400G supports up to 80 optical channels of 2.5 Gb/s each over a single fiber

http://www.webproforum.com/dwdm/topic01.html

new options in protocol stacks
New Options in Protocol Stacks

IP

ATM

IP

IP

SONET/SDH

SONET/SDH

IP

ATM

WDM Optical Network

Physical Fiber Plant

dwdm as capacity expansion

SONETADM

IP Router

SONET

ADM

W

D

M

W

D

M

SONET

ADM

SONET

ADM

IP Router

DWDM as Capacity Expansion

ATM uplink on OC-3c

OC-3c

OC-48

OC-48

ATM

Switch

ATM uplink on OC-3c

OC-48

OC-48

OC-3c

ADM: Add Drop Multiplexer

elimination of sonet
Elimination of SONET

ATM uplink on OC-48

OC-48

IP Router

W

D

M

W

D

M

ATM

Switch

IP Router

OC-48

ATM uplink on OC-48

revisiting cable networks with dwdm
Revisiting Cable Networks with DWDM

http://www.webproforum.com/hfc_dwdm/index.html

backbone ip network
Backbone IP Network

NMS(s)

Cable Modem

WDMEMS

Internet

IPEMS

IPRouter

Cable

IPRouter

WDM

Cable

Access

IPRouter

WDM

WDM

WDM

IPRouter

the quality of service challenge transmission of voice through data networks
The Quality of Service ChallengeTransmission of voice through data networks
  • 150 msec one way delay
  • Minimum jitter buffer of 15 msec
  • 1-2% packet loss

Delay

Losses

Jitter

congestion happens
Congestion happens!
  • Loss of transmission resource
  • Olympic games, earth-quake, TV show...
diffserv and edge control solving the qos challenge
Diffserv and Edge Control:Solving the QoS challenge

Managed IP backbone

Edge router

Customer

evolution of the network two options for quality of service
Evolution of the NetworkTwo options for quality of service

Diffserv

Bandwidth

1: Rising tide

2: Retooling

different requirements for voice and data
Different Requirements for Voice and Data
  • Voice
    • Sensitive to delay and jitter
    • Low tolerance for packet loss
  • Data
    • Delay insensitive
    • Packet loss dramatically reduces throughput
  • Small buffers
    • VoIP delays lie within acceptable bounds; compliance with loss bounds are ensured only for low loads of TCP traffic
    • Severe degradation of TCP performance even at very low loads since the buffers are unable to accept even small bursts that are generated by a TCP flow
  • Large buffers
    • Good throughput for TCP
    • VoIP traffic suffers a sharp increase in jitter at even moderate buffer sizes
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Continued exponential growth in size and functionality of the Internet
  • Thanks for fiber optics, network technology is keeping pace with demand