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Comparing the Locomotion Dynamics of a Cockroach and a Shape Deposition Manufactured Biomimetic Robot Sean A. Bailey, Jorge G. Cham, Mark R. Cutkosky Biomimetic Robotics Lab Stanford University Robert J. Full PolyPedal Laboratory University of California at Berkeley December 12, 2000

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slide1
Comparing the Locomotion Dynamics of a Cockroach and a Shape Deposition Manufactured Biomimetic Robot

Sean A. Bailey, Jorge G. Cham, Mark R. Cutkosky

Biomimetic Robotics Lab

Stanford University

Robert J. Full

PolyPedal Laboratory

University of California at Berkeley

December 12, 2000

overview
Overview

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Introduction
  • Shape Deposition Manufacturing
  • Robot Design
  • Locomotion Dynamics
  • Conclusions
introduction
Introduction

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Motivation
    • Small
    • Fast
    • Robust
  • Integrated approach
    • Biomimetic structures
    • Biologically-inspired control

De-mining in an unstructured environment

slide4

Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM)

Piston

Fitting

Inlet Valve

Pressure Sensor

Exhaust Valve

Leaf-spring

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

Manufacturing

Prototype Limb with Embedded Pneumatic Actuator, Sensor, Leaf Spring and Valves

slide5

Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM)

Multi-material part

w/ embedded components

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Arbitrary geometries
  • Embedded components
  • No fasteners
  • Multi-materials
  • Tailored compliance

Graded, multi-material 5-bar

biological example
Biological Example

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Death-head cockroach Blaberus discoidalis
  • Fast
    • Speeds of up to 10 body/s
  • Rough terrain
    • Can easily traverse fractal terrain of obstacles 3X hip height

Blaberus discoidalis running over fractal terrain

biological inspiration
Biological Inspiration

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Control heirarchy
    • Passive component
    • Active component

Neural System

(CPG)

Feedforward

Motor Pattern

Sensory

Feedback

(Reflexes)

Mechanical

System

(muscles, limbs)

Mechanical

Feedback

(Preflexes)

Environment

Passive Dynamic

Self-Stabilization

Locomotion

Full and Koditschek, 1999

robot design
Robot Design

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

Cockroach Geometry

Functional Biomimesis

Robot Implementation

  • Passive Compliant Hip Joint
  • Effective Thrusting Force
  • Damped, Compliant Hip Flexure
  • Embedded Air Piston
  • Rotary Joint
  • Prismatic Joint

Cham et al., 2000, Clark et al., 2001

sprawlita
Sprawlita

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

Actuators and

wiring embedded

inside structure

  • Mass - .27 kg
  • Dimensions - 16x10x9 cm
  • Leg length - 4.5 cm
  • Max. Speed - 55 cm/s 3+ body/sec
  • Hip height obstacle traversal

Legs with

Compliant

Flexures

2.5 cm

movie
Movie

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Superficially insect-like
  • Stable running
  • Obstacle traversal
whole body dynamics
Whole Body Dynamics

15

filtered vertical force

unfiltered horizontal force

10

Force (N)

5

0

High

speed

video

markers

High

speed

video

markers

-5

450

550

650

750

Time (ms)

Force

plate

Locomotion

Direction

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Force plate
  • High speed video

Force Plate Data

High-speed Footage with Markers

animal running the slip model
Animal Running - the SLIP model

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

SIX-

Legged

EIGHT-

Legged

Cockroach

Crab

B

o

d

y

V

e

r

t

i

c

a

l

TWO-

Legged

W

e

i

g

h

t

F

o

r

c

e

FOUR-

Legged

Fore-aft

F

o

r

c

e

T

i

m

e

Spring-Loaded

Inverted Pendulum

SLIP

Blickhan 1989

Human

Dog

Cavagna et al., 1975

whole body ground reaction forces
Whole Body Ground Reaction Forces

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

Spring-Loaded

Inverted Pendulum

(SLIP)

Blaberus

discoidalis

Sprawlita

6

0.025

4

Vertical Force

0.02

2

0.015

.004

2

0

Fore-aft Force

0

-.004

-2

0

50

100

20

40

60

80

Time

Time (ms)

Time (ms)

Dragging

Accelerate

Accelerate

Decelerate

Decelerate

Decelerate

Accelerate

individual leg forces
Individual leg forces

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Sprawlita drags middle and rear foot
  • Individual legs have functions dissimilar from cockroach legs
  • More questions
    • Relative contact time

Front Leg

Middle Leg

Hind Leg

10

12

10

0

0

0

mN

ms

-6

-6

-6

0

140

0

60

140

0

140

4

4

4

0

0

0

N

ms

-2

-2

-2

0

20

50

0

50

0

50

filtered vertical force

filtered horizontal force

Dragging

summary and conclusions
Summary and Conclusions

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Sprawlita
    • Physically robust
    • Operationally robust
    • Open loop
  • Comparing locomotion dynamics suggests design improvements
    • Foot drag - longer stroke
  • If more SLIP-like...
      • faster?
      • more efficient?
      • more robust?
future work
Future Work

Valve

Cylinder

Prototype with close proximity valve and cylinder

Double piston extension

SDM linkage extension

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Sprawley Davidson
  • Leg extensions
  • The Sprawlettes
  • High level, not real-time sensor-based control
slide17

Acknowledgements

Intro

Design

SDM

Dynamics

Conclusions

  • Stanford
    • Center for Design Research
    • Dexterous Manipulation Lab
    • Rapid Prototyping Lab
  • Berkeley
    • PolyPedal Lab
  • Sponsors
    • Office of Naval Research
    • National Science Foundation