Balanced Literacy Guided Reading Scholastic Blue
How do you relate? “The flood of print has turned reading into a process of gulping rather than savoring”Warren Chappell – graphic designer “When you have mastered numbers, you will in fact no longer be reading numbers, any more than you read words when reading books you will be reading meanings.”Harold S. Geneen – past president and CEO of ITT “There should be a little voice in your head like the storyteller is saying it. And if there's not, then you're just lookin' at the words.”Lakeshia ~9th Grader in San Francisco ‘How can you dare teach a man to read until you've taught him everything else first?” George Bernard Shaw - Nobel Prize Laureate in Literature
Road Map for Today • Outcomes • Agenda
Balanced Literacy Writing Reading Modeled Writing Read Aloud Shared Writing Teacher Does Shared Reading Interactive Writing Child Does Child Does Guided Reading Guided Writing Independent Writing Independent Reading The teacher gradually gives control of the text to the child, depending upon the demands of the text and the child’s ability
Guided Reading Scholastic Blue • Consists of 260 books organized into 26 levels of difficulty – Levels A – Z. • Six copies of each book are provided for small group use in the classroom. • Teaching cards are provided for each of the selected books in the Guided Reading kits.
Scholastic has two forms of guided reading! • Blue/white conceptual streams throughout Literacy Place anthologies now better known as Shared Reading • Scholastic Reading Blue
Guided Reading What is it? What it is not?
TASK: What is Guided Reading? 1. Read pages 8 and 9 in the Scholastic Guided Reading Program – Blue Edition Teachers Guide! 2. With your table group define Guided Reading. Write the definition on the top section of your sheet. 3.List what Guided Reading is in the first column.
What is guided reading? “Guided reading is an instructional approach that involves a teacher with a small group of children who demonstrate similar reading behaviors and can all read similar texts.” “The teacher selects a text that is easy enough for children to read with skillful teacher support, but also offers challenges and opportunities for problem-solving.” Scholastic Guided Reading Program Teacher’s Guide Pg. 8
Understandings about Guided Reading... • All children have the ability to become literate. • To maximize their full reading potential, all children need to be taught by skilled teachers. • The goal of guided reading is to help children become independent readers.
Guided reading is but one component of an effective reading program. • Reading for meaning is the primary goal of guided reading. • Children learn to read by reading. • Children need to be metacognitive: knowing what they know --- the why and how of reading.
TASK: Guided Reading is NOT: 4. With your table group – discuss what GUIDED READING is NOT. List those items in the second column on your sheet.
Guided Reading is NOT: • A complete reading program • Whole group instruction • Round robin reading • Sustained Silent Reading • JUST for young children
Considerations When Planning For Guided Reading 2. Assessment: What you know about the child as a reader 1. Reading Process: Understanding of how children progress as readers 3. Leveled Texts: What you know about leveled books and matching books to readers 4. Guided Reading Lesson:Before, During and After the Lesson 5. Organizing Your Classroom for Guided Reading and Flexible Grouping: Environments, routines, schedules, groupings
1. Reading Process How children develop as readers
Task: Can you read this? The pony trotted across the plains. The pony trotted across the plains. The p ony trotted across the plains. The pony trotted across the plains. The pony trotted across the p lains. The pony trotted across the plains.
Sources of Information-Cueing Systems Prior Knowledge Link Symbol to Sound - Check Against Meaning - Confirm Sense of story Meaning Illustrations Grammar patterns and language structure Does it make sense? Oral language Knowledge of English Language Structure Visual Does it sound right? Can you say it that way? Does it look right? Sounds and symbols (Phonics) Concepts of print
Task: Reading Development Over Time • Individuallyreview the continuum which shows reading development/characteristics • Individually write five different words or phrases that come to mind as you read how readers change over time. • Next join a small group and discuss your words or phrases. Choose 3 different words or short phrases to share and report out.
Stages of Reading 5 Communication & Reconstruction 4 Multiple Viewpoints 3 Reading for Learning “The New” Comprehension 2 Confirmation & Fluency 1 Initial Reading 0 Prereading Preschool Elementary School High School College Middle School
2. Assessment Knowing the Children You Teach
Task: Knowing a Child’s Reading What do you want to know about a child’s reading before planning a guided reading lesson? Take a moment to discuss with your tablemates.
We want to know about their… • Decoding skills: How do students read words or solve unknown words • Fluency: the degree to which students read with accuracy ease, and fluency • Comprehension: the degree to which students understand the text they read
Exposure to Books: Amounts, type, and quantity of reading • Attitudes and interests: about themselves and reading -- do they enjoy reading • Oral Language: background knowledge, vocabulary etc.
Task:Observe a Reader 1. Observe a child read. What did you learn about their reading? 2. What are some other ways we can assess our children’s reading?
Ways to assess • Observation and anecdotal records • Running Records* (Page 22 Scholastic Blue) • Record of Oral Reading • Informal checklists • Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) • Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) • Story Retells/Oral Retelling • Fluency Measure* (Page 26 Scholastic Blue)
Tools from Literacy Place • Benchmark Books from the Assessment Kit • Reading Analysis Interview • Reading Comprehension Assessment • Miscue Analysis • Student Profile • Assessment Handbook • Reading and Writing Survey • Student Questionnaires • Book logs • Misc. anecdotal forms • Self assessments • Rubrics
Task:A child from your class (Part 1) • Think of a child in your class. • What do you know about this child in terms of their reading strengths and needs? • Where are they on the reading development characteristics continuum?
3. Leveled Books What’s the big deal about leveled texts?
Leveled books provide us with a way to ensure that students have the opportunity to read books within in their independent and instructional level • “Of everything that children read: • 85% should be easy for them • 15% should be a bit of a challenge • 0% should be difficult because it provides no opportunity for learning.” • -Richard Allington, 1996
Commonly Used Leveling Systems • Guided Reading Levels (Fountas and Pinnell) • DRA Levels • Reading Recovery Levels • Lexile Levels
What are Guided Reading Levels? A way to level books based on a text gradient • A text gradient is a defined continuum of characteristics related to the level of support and challenge that a reader meets in a text. • Texts are grouped into categories along a continuum because they offer readers a similar level of support and challenge. • The level is an approximation of its difficulty and within a level there is some variation.
What Are Guided Reading Levels? (continued) • The challenges are not the same in every text in a level. • A given level is always seen in relation to the levels below and above it. • A gradient is not a precise sequence through which all students must move. Gradient is not a way to categorize students. It is meant solely to support the effectiveness of the reading and is a teacher tool.
Task: Understanding Guided Reading Levels Read pages 5-6 from your Scholastic Blue Teacher’s Guide Be ready to discuss some of the factors considered when leveling books using a text gradient
Task:Practice with Guided Reading Levels • You will need: a leveled text, handout, and the Scholastic Blue Teacher Guide. • Find a partner who teaches the same grade as you. • Using the leveled book you have, read over the descriptions of levels on page 32-57. Find ways to justify why that book is leveled the way it is. What might be some teaching points or behaviors to notice if you were using this book in a guided reading lesson?
Value of Leveled Books • Makes it easier to select appropriate books to use with groups of students in guided reading • Helps assess and record students’ progress over time • Helps guide students/teachers when selecting books for independent reading
Value of Leveled Texts (continued) • Provides a “ladder” that students can use to gradually increase their reading abilities • Provides a basis/common language for teachers to talk with one another about text difficulty and text selection • Helps in planning and evaluating the classroom collection and school book collection
Cautions: When Using Leveled Books • Using leveled books is not a way to return to the old way of doing reading groups-Blue Birds etc. • Students do not need to move lock step through the sequence nor do they need to read each book at a level before going to another level • Leveling is not an exact science; still need to factor in children’s interest, the amount of support you can provide • Children still need to have experience with books at levels beyond their instructional/independent level (i.e. read alouds, shared reading)
Cautions: When Using Leveled Books (continued) • Be careful about categorizing students. The text gradient is a collection of titles categorized by level of difficulty. It is a teacher’s tool. • Still need to teach students how to choose “just right books.” • Leveled books are only a small part of the classroom collection, and leveling books is not intended to limit student reading.
Matching Books to Readers: Guided Reading Levels • What are we aiming for? • Independent Level: 96-100% word accuracy, 75-100% comprehension • Instructional level: 92-95% word accuracy, 60-75% comprehension • Frustration Level: 90% word accuracy, 60% or less comprehension
Matching Books to Readers:Other important considerations • The text must engage a reader and at the same time provide opportunities to extend their reading ability • Simultaneously be thinking about the: • Reader’s present strategies • Reader’s interests and background knowledge
Matching Books to Readers:Other important considerations (Continued) • Text complexity in relation to the reader’s current skills • The language of the text in relation to the reader’s background knowledge • The appropriateness of the content to the age of the reader
Task:Matching Books to Readers: Putting it All Together (Part2) • Refer back to the student in your class that you described as a reader in terms of assessment and the reading process. • Think about the various guided reading levels. What level do you think would be a good match for this child. • What might be some “behaviors to observe and teach” that you would to include in a guided reading lesson? (Page 32-57 Teacher’s Edition Scholastic Blue)
Lexile Vocabulary Lesson: (Mathematical Approach) * Lexile Level * Lexile Measure * Lexile Range A determined difficulty represented by a number in 50 increments The number attached to the child based on testing data A set of points from 50L above to 100L below a child’s Lexile measure said to be acceptable
What are Lexile Levels? • A Lexile Level is a unit for measuring text difficulty. • It’s based on a formula that considers two basic variables: sentence length and frequency of wordusage. • It is not an instructional system; it is a system of measurement, a computerized system that calibrates the difficulty of text and determines which students will be able to negotiate that material, quickly and with a high degree of accuracy.
What are Lexile Levels? • A Lexile Level can also determine the level of text difficulty a student can comprehend. This is called the student’s “Lexile measure.” • The student’s “Lexile measure” indicates the level of text a student can read with 75% comprehension. • The student’s “Lexile measure” establishes a range of readability levels, which are about 50L above and 100L below the student’s “Lexile measure”.
Words of Wisdom Try not to get too hung up on levels “…think of the Goldilocks Standard books should neither be too easy nor too hard-but just right.” -Sharon Taberski P. 150 “…this expertise – being able to match readers with books-takes time to develop.” -Schulman & Payne