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General Anatomical Structures in Your Dog. Arranged as Sensory structures Vital organs Skeletal structures Each organized by Anatomy Physiology Healthcare Diseases. Models provided by Banfield photographs and descriptions provided by http://peer.tamu.edu

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general anatomical structures in your dog

General Anatomical Structures in Your Dog

Arranged as

Sensory structures

Vital organs

Skeletal structures

Each organized by

Anatomy

Physiology

Healthcare

Diseases

Models provided by Banfield

photographs and descriptions

provided by http://peer.tamu.edu

College of Veterinary Medicine

Texas A & M University

NCRR GK12

slide2

EAR

Anatomy

Pinna (flap)

Vertical Canal

Temporalis

Muscle

Ear Drum

Auricular

Cartilage

Horizontal

Canal

Ossicles

Middle Ear

Cavity

Tympanic Bulla

slide3

EAR

Anatomy

slide4

EAR

  • Thousands of tiny hairs inside your pet’s ear vibrate when sound is present. This allows for the sense of hearing.

Physiology

slide5
Sound causes the tympanic membrane in the external ear canal to move inward and outward. This causes the tiny bones in the middle ear to vibrate. Movement of the oval window generates pressure waves in the inner ear. This causes microscopic hairs on hair cells in the inner ear to bend. This ultimately results in the auditory nerve sending signals to the brain and thus, sound is perceived.

Physiology

slide8

EYE

Anatomy

Ciliary body

Iris

Occular Muscle

Cornea

Retina

Lens

Optic

Disk

Pupil

Anterior

Chamber

Vitreous

Body

Blood Vessels

slide9

EYE

Anatomy

Occular Muscles

slide10
The cornea and lens focus light on the retina. The rods and cones in the retina respond to this light and ultimately signal the ganglion cells to send information via the optic nerve to visual centers in the brain.

Physiology

slide11

EYE

  • Keep your pet’s eyes clean to prevent infections.
    • Trim the hair around your pet’s eyes.
    • Make sure the corners of your pet’s eyes are mucus-free.
    • Apply protective ophthalmic ointment before applying insecticides or bathing.

Healthcare

slide12

EYE

  • Cataracts occur when the lens loses opacity. Light no longer is transmitted to the retina correctly. This leads to vision loss.

Diseases

slide13

HAIR

Anatomy

Hair Shaft

Epidermis

Sebaceous

Gland

Sarcoptes

Mite

Flea

Demodex Mite

Hair

Follicle

Apocrine Sweat

Gland

Nerve

slide14

HAIR

Anatomy

slide15

HAIR

  • Hair functions as a protective layer, a warming layer and sometimes (like whiskers) hair is used to feel touch.

Physiology

slide16

HAIR

  • Your pet’s hair must be kept clean just like yours. Tangles or mats in your animal’s hair can lead to infection of the skin below.

Healthcare

slide17

HAIR

  • Demodex mites cause a condition called mange as they eat your hair at the base.

Diseases

slide18

NAIL

Anatomy

Outer Nail

Quick

(Blood vessel & nerve)

Bone

slide19

NAIL

Anatomy

slide20

NAIL

  • Nails are used for gripping, hunting and fighting.

Physiology

slide21

NAIL

  • All pets, especially those who stay indoors should have their nails clipped regularly.

Healthcare

slide22

NAIL

  • Nail cracking is common injury to your pet’s nails, and it often occurs when your pet’s nails get too long. Cracked nailed are painful and can lead to infection.

Diseases

slide23

TEETH

Anatomy

Loss of

Enamel

Crown

Pulp

Cavity

Root

Dentinal

Wall

Periodontal

Disease

Neck

Root

Furcation

Root

Apex

Nerve Root

Inflammation

Periodontal

Space

Alveolar

Bone (jaw)

Bone

Loss

slide24

TEETH

Anatomy

slide25

TEETH

  • Teeth break down food into digestible pieces.

Physiology

slide27
Periodontal disease is an infection around the teeth which can cause your animal’s teeth to fall out.

TEETH

Diseases

slide28

HEART

Anatomy

Aorta

Pulmonery Artery

Right Atrium

Left Atrium

Tricuspid

Valve

Mitral

Valve

Left

Ventricle

Right Ventricle

Heartworms

Interventricular

Septum

slide29

HEART

Anatomy

slide30
The heart is the most important muscle in the body. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs. This oxygenated blood then returns to the heart and is then pumped by the left ventricle pumps to the rest of the body.

Physiology

slide31

HEART

  • To maintain a healthy heart your pet (as well as you) must get plenty of exercise.

Healthcare

slide32

HEART

  • Heartworms come from mosquitoes and they invade the heart and can lead to heart failuire.

Diseases

slide33

KIDNEY

Anatomy

Renal Vein

Renal Artery

Ureter

Renal Pelvis

Capsule

Cortex

Diseased

Tissue

Medulla

Calix

Healthy Tissue

slide34

KIDNEY

Anatomy

slide35
The kidney is one of the most important organs in the body. Besides eliminating waste products from the body, the kidneys regulate water balance, the composition of blood, blood pressure and blood volume.

Physiology

slide36
Be sure your pet is drinking plenty of water and staying away from toxic chemicals.

KIDNEY

Healthcare

slide38

HIPS

Anatomy

Acetabulum Rim

Femoral Neck

Greater

Trochanter

Femoral

Head

Femur

Dysplasia/Arthritis

slide39

HIPS

Anatomy

slide40

HIPS

Anatomy

slide41

HIPS

  • The hip is a ball and socket joint which aids in leg movement.

Physiology

slide42
The hip is a ball and socket joint which aids in leg movement. Bones serve as a point of attachment for muscles and thus provide animals with the ability to move. In addition, bones serve as a storehouse for calcium and a site for producing red blood cells. Calcium is essential for muscles and nerves to function properly. Red blood cells are required for transporting oxygen.

Physiology

slide43

HIPS

  • To decrease your pet’s risk of developing arthritis:
    • Make sure your pet is eating a well-balanced diet
    • Do not allow your pet to become overweight
    • Keep your pet warm
    • Keep your pet from injury
    • Make sure your pet gets plenty of exercise

Healthcare

slide44
Arthritis occurs commonly in dogs and horses. Bone rubbing against bone leads to massive inflammation.

HIPS

Diseases

slide45

KNEE

Anatomy

Patella

Cranial Cruciate

Ligament

Femur

Medial

Meniscus

Medial

Meniscus

Lateral Meniscus

Lateral Collateral

Ligament

Patellar

Ligament

Fibula

Tibia

slide46

KNEE

Anatomy

slide47

KNEE

Anatomy

slide48

KNEE

Anatomy

slide49
The knee is a high-motion high-stress joint in an animal’s leg. Joints provide a means for bending of extremities and also serve as a means to cushion the forces between bones.

Physiology

slide50

KNEE

  • Make sure your pet gets daily exercise and maintains a healthy weight to prevent damage to the knee joint. Strengthening and stretching muscles around the knee joint will also help prevent injury.

Healthcare

slide51
A cranial crutiate ligiment (CCL) tear is a common injury. This results in the joint being unstable.

KNEE

Diseases

slide52

SPINE

Anatomy

Spinal Nerve

Vertebra

Spinal Cord

Herniated Disc

Intervertebral Disk

slide53

SPINE

Anatomy

Herniated Disc

slide54
The vertebra provide protection for the spinal cord. Spinal nerves pass between adjacent vertebra. These nerves send signals from the various parts of the body to the brain and also send signals from the brain to activate muscles.

Physiology

slide55

SPINE

  • Make sure your pet maintains a healthy body weight and gets daily moderate exercise.
  • Use a chest harness instead of attaching a leash to a buckle collar which can jerk the neck suddenly.
  • Train your pet to avoid sudden jerking movements that can stress the spine (such as jumping off furniture).

Healthcare

slide56

SPINE

  • A herniated disc can put pressure on your pet’s spinal cord. This can lead to paralysis.

Diseases

slide57

This has been General Anatomical

Structures

in Your Dog

Models provided by Banfield

photographs and descriptions

provided by http://peer.tamu.edu

College of Veterinary Medicine

Texas A & M University

slide58

See http://peer.tamu.edu/vets.htmfor ready to use presentations for veterinarians and follow-up lessons for teachers to present in classrooms

find it on the web
Find it on the web!

http://peer.tamu.edu/VBB/Summary.asp

or http://peer.tamu.edu/vets.htm