Flight and other locomotion in birds. Lift of a wing. Bernoulli effect – pressure is inversely related to number of particles moving in a single direction (fluids). Newton’s 3 rd Law – for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Static airfoil (wing). Angle of Attack. Vacuum.
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If angle of attack > ~5°, wing starts to produce vorticies. These can lead to “stall”
Low Speed (take-off and landing)
High Angle of Attack
Florescent induced photo
aka Profile drag
Tobalske et al. 2004
Videler et al. (2004)
Low pressure zone
On top of wing
Wing wants to “fill” the low pressure zone thereby creating lift
Can be used for maneuverability (each wing independent)
Or “slope soaring”
Cockatiel flying at 1m/sec
Budgerigars in wind-tunnel (Tobalske and Dial 1994)