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Extra Vehicular Activity

Extra Vehicular Activity

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Extra Vehicular Activity

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  1. Extra Vehicular Activity Suits and Devices

  2. EVA Suit Requirements • Camera for exterior shots and face shots • Direct voice com independent of rover • Support EVA time of up to 10 hours • EVA suits will be provided by HERCULES staff USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  3. Technology Development Targets • Skin tight suits • Hard suits – “inflate” soft suit inside carbon fiber shell • Joint technology challenges • Anti-dust coatings – electrostatic approach • Vacuum/abrasion resistant coatings • EVA mobility • EVA tools • Garage and Resupply Aids USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  4. Custom Suits – The old way The Apollo suit, including the life support backpack, weighed about 180 pounds. (Source NASA http://history.nasa.gov/ spacesuits.pdf) • Gemini 4 Suit - Ed White –Photo Courtesy of NASA Apollo 17 Suit – Harrison Schmitt – Photo Courtesy of NASA USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  5. Modular Suit - Now Shuttle suit with the life support system, weighs about 310 pounds. The suit itself weighs about 110 pounds. Shuttle EMU - Modular –Courtesy of NASA (Source NASA http://history.nasa.gov/ spacesuits.pdf) USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  6. Suit Mass/Life Support Requirements • The life support system design goal - 10 hours EVA • Water: 2.4 kg • Oxygen: 0.35 kg • Food: 0.25 kg • Waste Products Removal/Handling: • CO2: 0.4 kg • Urine: 0.66 kg • Solid Waste: 0.09 kg • Mass is in fabric, pumps, electronics, etc. USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  7. Rover Suit Design Concepts/Sizing • Mass < 100 pounds + modular life support for variable duration • Straw man design: • One standard COTS pressure tank (0.727 kg of O2) + 1 smaller reserve tank, + third nitrogen tank • CO2 Removal: Lithium hydroxide or rechargeable metal oxide cartridges. • Food, Water, Waste • Water ~ 90-100 ounces (ref. NASA STD-3000 • Food dispenser – small built into helmet • Waste collection: derived from the Shuttle Waste Contamination System (WCS) (Reference: AIAA2003-6276.SCOUT.pdf) USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  8. Hard Suit Prototype Hard Suit Prototype – not enhanced Mark III Suit – Evaluation Unit - Photo Courtesy of NASA USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  9. Skin Tight Suits – The Choice for Rovers • Skin tight suits – Biosuit 1 • Use mechanical counter pressure (MCP) for pressure production • Active materials/piezo-electric based pressure production • Suit is donned like conventional clothes – then shrinks to fit • Smaller, more mobile • Duration extension with recharge packs on cart Note 1: As described in “An Astronaut ‘Bio-Suit’ System for Exploration Missions, Newman, D. J.; Hoffman, J.; et al - Presentation to NIAC by MIT (ref. http://mvl.mit.edu/ EVA/workshop.html) Figure: http://mvl.mit.edu/EVA/biopics/DJN_MarsTwoView.jpg USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  10. Augmented Hard Suit – Construction and Serious EVA • Dust free EVA/hardsuits mounted on habitat walls (thus system must clean a minimal area before re-dock) – Scaled lander docking technology – Suit docks • Enhanced mobility through movement amplifiers • Spring based hopper and gyroscopic stability options • Training required for use! • Race Support/Rescue Personnel, but probably not for rover teams USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  11. Space Suit Feature Trades • Trade of Suit Types and suitability • Based on: ASTRONAUT PERFORMANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE SPACESUIT DESIGN: Frazer, A. L, et al, IAC-02-G.5.03 USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  12. Suit Technology – Race will Accelerate and Prove Concepts • Electrostatic charging effects – use dust properties to repel rather than attract dust • Cleaning station – baghouse with electrostatic precipitator components built into suit – plug in? • Electrostatic dust removal from rover surfaces – hatch areas, viewports, solar cells • Skin Suits that integrate self-cleaning fabrics • Disposable covers for contingency use suits USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  13. Backpack to Dock • Suit docks 1 • Adaptable to soft or hard suit designs Note 1: “Suitport” - the NASA-Ames Hazmat vehicle, and the Hamilton-Sundstrand “Ready to Wear” Marssuit (Hodgeson & Guyer, 1998, 2000) USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  14. Helmet Incorporates Video Features + • Stereoscopic cameras • Work lights • Interior camera for facial shot - video appeal • Multiband Radio/suit controls – Radio links to • Rover • Earth-comm link (satellite) • Other EVA • Food/Water dispenser USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  15. Rover Competion Drives Spiral • Development of rover concepts will drive, and in some cases, be driven by suit design • Race will serve to force suit evolution for focused needs and lead to diversified suit choices • Race will accelerate tool/EVA aid design USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  16. EVA Tools • Design of suitable tools and EVA aids facilitates competition goals • Design for simplicity and utility and… • Video appeal USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  17. Lunar Crossbow • Simple, effective, photogenic • Ideal for projecting rescue, tow, comm or even power lines • Max Range = v02/g, where gmoon = 1.62 m/s2 • A projectile launcher capable of 105 meters/second initial velocity will have a max range of ~ 6.8 km. Off the shelf sporting crossbows can propel 26 gram projectiles at this velocity • Future study: Review designs for fishing crossbows, FOG/M missiles for lunar use USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  18. Regolith Hammer • Simple hammer device filled with regolith to aid in hammering stakes, etc., into the lunar surface • Bipod stabilization USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  19. EVA Scooter vs. Nonconventional Personal Locomotion • Trade – Amplified foot transport, conventional scooter, Segway type devise • Vendor/sponsor developed “common cycle” for all rovers • All will face dust challenges • Area needs more study! USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  20. Garage and Way Station Technologies • En route solar storm protection desirable for team safety • Way Stations need crew resupply and rescue aids • Way stations demonstrate autonomous helpers USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  21. Inflatable Way Station Garage Unfolding two layer petal-like structure with embedded inflatable beams Unmanned landing pod Self-erecting structure Completed Garage Regolith “pumps” while inflating Idea adapted from: Chow, P. Y., and Lin, T. Y. ~1988:. ‘‘Structures for the Moon.’’ Engineering, construction, and operations in space, S. W. Johnson and J. P.Wetzel, eds., ASCE, New York, 362–374. USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  22. Way Station Resupply/Rescue • LSRU – Lunar Surface Replaceable Units • Way station has drive under resupply device • Dock port on top or side of rover • Resupply cannister plugs in USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  23. Resupply/Rescue/Transfer Concept • Way station automatically cleans rover dock area and attaches tunnel, crew crawls through and manually collects resupply • Could serve as crew transfer/rescue aid USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  24. Autonomous Helpers • Way stations will be deployed with an autonomous or remotecontrolled mini-rover. • Remote control or autonomous • Drive to some local high point (perhaps within 5 km - approx line of site) of the waypoint to aid in location of the waypoint once a rover gets close. • Provides rover inspection and damage assement utility • Camera link to way station for video transmission to earth • Minimal supply cache transportation to nearby rover • Power from solar/battery combination • Size (small enough to go underneath most rovers for inspection) USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  25. Autonomous Helpers – Utility and Advertising USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  26. Conclusion • EVA Capability, events crucial to race appeal • Race provides stimulus for EVA development USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  27. Backup Charts USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  28. Inflatable Structure Graphic from: Engineering, Design and Construction of Lunar Bases H. Benaroya; L. Bernold; and K. M. Chua, ASCE 0893-13212002 USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  29. EVA-Lunar Soil Properties References • http://rtreport.ksc.nasa.gov/techreports/2001report/200/206.html • Key milestones: • Experiment with actual lunar dust. • Determine the charge generated on dust particles by photoemission due to ultraviolet absorption. • Expose materials to charged and uncharged lunar dust under simulated lunar environmental conditions. • Contact: Dr. C.I. Calle (Carlos.Calle-1@ksc.nasa.gov), YA-F2-T, (321) 867-3274 USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  30. EVA-Electrostatic Charging • http://debye.colorado.edu/ZoltansJGR.pdf • Contact charging of Lunar and Martian dust simulants • Quotes: “Our experiments demonstrated that both regolith analog samples (JSC-1 and JSC-Mars-1) can become highly charged from a contact with either an insulating or conducting surface. The dust charge from contacts thus can be comparable or even exceed the charge a dust particle collects in a typical low temperature space plasma environment where the equilibrium charge is on the order of the electron temperature, Te, which is typically few eV [Horányi, 1996].” USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  31. EVA-Electrostatic Charging (cont’d) • “The large contact charges described here for planetary regolith analogs JSC-1 and JSC-Mars-1 suggest that grains lifted off airless planetary surfaces will carry a significant charge, regardless of ambient plasma conditions.” USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture

  32. EVA-Dust Properties – Research and Simulation • Minnesota Lunar Dust Simulant: “This simulant reproduces the chemical composition of lunar dust as well as its microscopic morphology. It does not reproduce well the mechanical properties of in situ lunar dust, due to the absence of Van der Waals (intermolecular level attraction) forces between grains at ambient pressure.” • Klinkrad H., U. Fuller, J.C. Zarnecki, "Retrieval of Space Debris Information from ESA's DISCOS Catalogue", Proc. ESA Workshop on Space Environment Analysis, Noordwijk, 9-12 October 1990 (ESA WPP-23) USC 2004 AME 557 Space Exploration Architecture