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Escuela Nueva: Learning to Learn and Coexist Peacefully Escuela Nueva Foundation www.escuelanueva.org. Vicky Colbert de Arboleda Executive Director.

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Escuela Nueva: Learning to Learn and Coexist Peacefully Escuela Nueva Foundationwww.escuelanueva.org

Vicky Colbert de Arboleda Executive Director

slide2

“For more than 100 years, the lack of school management methods has been the cause of countless complaints.But it has been only in the last 30 years that efforts have been made to find a solution to this problem. And what has resulted? Schools continue exactly the same as before.”

John Amos Comenius 1632

slide3

Latin America´s

Basic Education Problems

  • Low academic achievements
  • Incomplete schooling; high repetition and drop out rates
  • Low self esteem of children
  • Rigid calendars & evaluation and promotion systems
  • Traditional, frontal, teacher-centered methods
slide4

Latin America´s

Basic Education Problems

  • Lack of relevant learning materials and textbooks
  • Weak school-community relationship
  • Overloaded, irrelevant curriculum
  • Untrained teachers in handling multigrade schools; low teacher morale and ineffective, inadequate pre-in service training of teachers
slide5

Latin America´s

Basic Education Problems

  • Some progress in access and coverage, but high REPETITION and DROP OUT RATES
    • 20% enroll late ; 42% repeat 1st grade ; 30% repeat 2nd grade.
    • Average schooling: 4.2
  • 50% of students in 4th grade do not understand what they read
  • Annually, USD $3.5 billion are spent in 20 million repeaters
slide6

Consequences of Repetition

High heterogeneity in ages of children limits learning, specially when conventional teacher-centered methods are used.

slide7

Basic Education Reforms in

Latin America

“New paradigms for learning ”

  • Improving the quality of education implies more than an emphasis on expanding current systems of education

More of the same is not enough!!

  • It implies a cultural change, requiring:
    • A shift of emphasis from transmission of information to an emphasis in comprehension and collective construction of knowledge.
    • A new type of school, renovated teaching methods and a change in the role of the teacher.
slide8

Previous Efforts: Rural

Multigrade Schools

  • Multigrade schools exist in both, developed and developing countries
  • Specially in low density and scattered populations
  • One or two teachers have to work simultaneously with all primary education grades
  • Multigrade schools are not a second class option
slide9

Multigrade Rationale

  • In Latin America, multigrade teaching was based on the "Unitary School" methodology
  • Was promoted by UNESCO in the 60’s worldwide
  • According to education research, the organization of a multigrade school requires more innovation
  • These schools require the modification of the traditional teaching practices and the promotion of a child-centered learning process
slide10

Multigrade Rationale

This setting requires:

  • That students be organized in small group
  • The development of flexible and personalized strategies
  • The development of learning guides (interactive textbooks) specially designed for independent learning and cooperative work
  • Quality teacher training and instructional delivery methods are core of effective Multigrade teaching
slide11

Multigrade Rationale

Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Angela W. Little (Ed.)

Institute of Education. University of London

Learning and Teaching in Multigrade Settings – invisible and persistent

“Current shortfalls in the achievement of EFA goals are found among communities who live at margin of society and who participate in the margins of the formal education system.

At many of these margins, multigrade teaching is involved.”

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Multigrade Rationale

Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Angela W. Little (Ed.) Institute of Education. University of London

Transforming necessity into a positive pedagogy

“Multigrade teaching that arises through necessity is often considered to be a second class education. However, in some cases, necessity has been transformed into a positive pedagogy, such as the well known Escuela Nueva system, notable for its proactive strategy.”

slide14

What is Escuela Nueva?

  • Escuela Nueva transforms the conventional school
  • Basic education innovation developed in Colombia
  • Set out to address all the nested factors of education simultaneously, rather than ineffectively tackling each in isolation
  • Systemically integrates curricular, in-service training and follow up, community and administrative strategies
  • Guarantees access,quality and relevance of basic education
  • Evolved from a local and state innovation to a national policy -implementation in most rural schools of Colombia (20,000 at the end of the 80´s.)
slide15

What does Escuela Nueva promote?

  • Child centered, participatory, cooperative and self-paced learning
  • Relevant curriculum based on children's daily life
  • Flexible calendar, promotion and grading systems
  • Closer, stronger relationship between the school and thecommunity
  • Emphasis on the formation of democratic and participatory values
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What does Escuela Nueva promote?

  • Effective and practical in-service teacher training strategies
  • New role for the teacher as facilitator
  • New generation of interactive self paced, self directed learning textbooks
slide27

Who does Escuela Nueva benefit?

Children, teachers, administrative staff and community through its four interrelated components, integrated at the school and community level in SYNERGY

Curricular

Component

Teacher training

Component

SYSTEM

AdministrativeComponent

Community Component

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It is possible!!

It demonstrated it is possible to improve

coverage, quality and equality of basic education in low income schools.

slide29

270

265

Argentina

Chile

Brasil

260

255

Average

250

Colombia

245

Mexico

240

Paraguay

Bolivia

235

Venezuela

230

Dominican Republic

Honduras

225

220

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

16000

“The quality of education in Colombia is close to the average of education in Latin America“

Score

Per capita income USD $

Source: UNESCO. First Comparative International Study on Quality of Education, 1999.

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260

Cuba

255

Colombia

250

Argentina

Brazil

Average

245

Chile

Rural Score

240

Dominican

Mexico

Republic

235

Paraguay

230

Bolivia

Venezuela

225

Honduras

220

230

235

240

245

250

255

260

265

270

275

280

“Rural education in Colombia has better quality than urban education”

(Except in big cities of Latin America)

Rural score

Urban score

Source: UNESCO. First Comparative International Study on Quality of Education, 1999.

slide31

270

Cuba

260

Colombia

250

Argentina

Brasil

240

Mexico

Bolivia

Paraguay

Chile

230

Dominican Republic

220

Venezuela

Honduras

210

210

215

220

225

230

235

240

245

250

255

260

“In mathematics, only Cuba's scores are above Colombia's”

( In rural education)

Mathematics

Language

Source: UNESCO. First Comparative International Study on Quality of Education, 1999.

slide32

It is possible!!

Escuela Nueva challenged massively the traditional teacher-centered frontal model and promoted active, child-centered, participatory and cooperative learning

child centered
“Child centered”

“Frontal, teacher centered”

slide34

It is possible!!

The multigrade situation forced the whole system to innovate in:

  • Pedagogical practices
  • Evaluation procedures
  • Textbook policies
  • Teacher training policies
  • Inspired the New Law of Education of Colombia
slide35

Escuela Nueva is one of the longest bottom-up innovations that has survived and sustained, despite changes in

political policies

slide36

Results from different statistical analysis confirm:

    • Superior achievements of children of Escuela Nueva
    • Significant reduction in drop out and repetition rates
    • Improvement in self-esteem and civic behavior
  • The National Planning Department of Colombia concluded:

“Escuela Nueva compensates for socio economic limitations when comparing children of Escuela Nueva of socio economic level 1 with socio economic level 2.”

it is possible
It is possible!!

It demonstrated that cooperative learning can initiate positive changes in democratic behavior.

Skills, values and attitudes for peaceful social interaction can be developed at the school.

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“Pedagogical routines that are oriented to group work, participation, self-learning, have a better chance of forming a democratic ethos than those that are merely directive”

José Bernardo Toro

slide39

80

70

60

50

NEU

%

40

EUT

30

20

10

0

Turns

Lead

Feedback

Evaluations

Global Results of the Study on Democratic Behavior in Guatemala

Comparative Study on Demoracratic Behavior in Guatemala – AED/Juarez and Associates (R.Chesterfield)

slide40

Evaluations

Research on Democratic Behavior in Colombia**

  • “The school influences the development of democratic behavior and peaceful social interaction skills in children.”
  • “The school's impact is significant and goes beyond the general violence environment.”

** Research led by Universidad del Rosario & Fundación Escuela Nueva Volvamos a la Gente. 2002. Published in Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Angela W. Little (Ed.) Institute of Education. University of London

slide41

Evaluations

Research on Democratic Behavior in Colombia**

  • “Escuela Nueva demonstrated significant results in the formation of democratic behavior and peaceful social interaction in comparison with conventional schools.”
  • There is an important direct impact of the schools system on the practices of the families of students and this is where Escuela Nueva and Conventional schools differ.

** Research led by Universidad del Rosario & Fundación Escuela Nueva Volvamos a la Gente. 2002. Published in Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Angela W. Little (Ed.) Institute of Education. University of London

slide42

Evaluations

Research on Democratic Behavior in Colombia**

“The probability of parents perceiveing and impact of the school on home practices grows as the level of implementation of Escuela Nueva increases.”

** Research led by Universidad del Rosario & Fundación Escuela Nueva Volvamos a la Gente. 2002. Published in Education for All and Multigrade Teaching: Challenges and Opportunities. Angela W. Little (Ed.) Institute of Education. University of London

slide43

Adaptation of Escuela Nueva to Urban Populations

  • 1987: Escuela Nueva Foundation (ENF) began a pilot project, supported by IAF, to adapt EN to the urban marginal setting: Escuela Nueva Activa™
  • Implemented in low-income schools of Bogotá with the poorest academic performance in a local standardized test
  • After two years of intervention, an evaluation led by National University of Colombia confirmed an increment in language skills of 40.36% and in math of 69%
  • These schools, with lowest ranking in the city among 2,500 centers evaluated, performed better than the city's average
slide44

Adaptation of Escuela Nueva to Urban Populations

  • Evidenced improvement of 45% and 83% in the development of basic competences in math and language, respectively.
slide46

Escuela Nueva´s Adaptation to Displaced, Migrant Populations

  • In 2001, ENF began the process of adapting Escuela Nueva to serve displaced, migrant populations through the Escuela Nueva Learning Circles Program™
  • They are spaces of learning within local communities comprised of groups of max. 15 children and a community youth tutor to ease the transition to the formal school
  • 5,745 indirectly benefited, including parents and community members
  • As it began, 55% of the children were excluded from the school system; after one year of intervention there was a 100% enrollment
slide47

Escuela Nueva´s Adaptation to Displaced, Migrant Populations

  • Results from UNESCO tests showed how children of EN learning circles obtained the highest level of improvement in both language and mathematics
  • (36.1% for language and 30.4% for mathematics.)
  • 5th grade children of the learning circles are 17.3 points above the national average, with a score of 69.3 in math and 13.9 in language. (83.6% and 69.7% respectively.)
  • Children’s self esteem was improved by 18.5 %.
slide50

Self esteem TAE Test

Escuela Nueva´s Adaptation to Displaced, Migrant Populations

escuela nueva s main achievements
Escuela Nueva´s Main Achievements

Escuela Nueva has a model framework so flexible it can take into consideration cultural and social differences.

  • It has allowed adaptation in countries as varied as: Brazil – Escola Activa, Guatemala – Escuela Nueva Unitaria, Panama – Escuela Activa, Chile – Mece Rural, El Salvador – Aulas Alternativas, Nicaragua – Escuela Modelo, Honduras - Escuela Activa Participativa / Escuela Nueva, Dominican Republic - Escuela Multigrado Innovada, Paraguay – Mita Iru, Mexico – Interactiva Comunitaria, Peru - Aprendes, Guyana – New School, Philippines - Active School / Child Friendly School and Uganda – New School
escuela nueva s main achievements52
Escuela Nueva´s Main Achievements
  • Best results in rural primary education in Latin America, after Cuba (UNESCO)
  • Visited by 35 countries, serving as inspiration for a great number of education reforms
  • Selected by the World Bank in 1989 as one of the three most outstanding reforms in developing countries, worldwide
  • The United Nation's Human Development Report (2000) selected Escuela Nueva as one of the three country's main achievements
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Fundación Escuela Nueva Volvamos a la GenteEscuela Nueva Foundationinfo@escuelanueva.orgwww.escuelanueva.orgPBX +571 2452712 – FAX Ext. 112Calle 39 No. 21-57Bogotá D.C., Colombia