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Emerging AHP Strategies for Recruitment. Maria E. Alvarez, MPA CDC/NCHSTP/DHAP/PPB Public Health Advisor Duty Point: NYC mma8@cdc.gov 212-268-6221. Recruitment.

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emerging ahp strategies for recruitment

Emerging AHP Strategies for Recruitment

Maria E. Alvarez, MPA


Public Health Advisor

Duty Point: NYC



  • An activity or set of activities intended to bring persons at high risk for being exposed to or for transmitting HIV into interventions to promote the adoption and maintenance of risk-reduction behaviors
  • A critical element to the success of any intervention
  • Strategies to engage members of a target audience/population into HIV prevention interventions, care, and services
  • Promotion of awareness of HIV programs
  • Outreach, referral network, social marketing, community-level interventions and individual-level interventions
fundamental strategies for recruitment
Fundamental Strategies for Recruitment
  • Outreach
    • Intensive/Enhanced/Targeted
    • In-reach
  • Referral Network
  • Social Marketing
  • Community Level Interventions (CLI)
  • Individual Level Interventions (ILI)
  • Working in the community rather than waiting for the community to come to the agency or organization
  • A set of activities conducted in the community to
    • provide HIV prevention information
    • communicate the benefits of early knowledge of one's serostatus
    • conduct risk-reduction interventions
    • promote agency programs
    • refer or link persons at high risk to prevention interventions and services
  • Conducted by peers, health educators, or outreach workers on the streets and face-to-face
  • Conducted in specific venues where persons at high risk congregate, such as neighborhood streets, parks, bars, bathhouses, adult book stores, shooting galleries, or crack houses
outreach intensive or enhanced
Outreach (Intensive or Enhanced )
  • Implements a “higher threshold outreach” with specific objectives and methods for engaging high-risk populations and or sub-populations into care and treatment
  • Uses non-traditional venues and hours
  • Provides a direct connection to needed and or wanted services as well as consistent support
  • Encourages recruitment into prevention interventions, care, and services (using highly trained and experienced peers)
outreach targeted
  • Designed to reach a specific population or sub-population of persons, as opposed to “general outreach,” which may involve mass mailings and tabling of information (e.g., health fairs) and is not targeted to any particular audience
in reach
  • Educational activity that provides HIV prevention information and promotes HIV program services to its own staff and to persons participating in services and programs
  • Conducted in the waiting areas or during an intake process for programs serving high-risk persons
referral networks
Referral Networks
  • Are an important strategy for recruiting persons at high risk into HIV intervention activities
  • Identifies other providers of services to the same population
  • Develops reciprocal agreements between service providers
referral networks11
Referral Networks
  • Bi-directional (most often)
  • Formal mechanism for client referrals and service provision, delineating responsibilities
  • Broader HIV prevention services, including
    • Clinics
    • Substance abuse treatment facilities
    • Homeless shelters
    • Domestic violence programs
    • Health department based STD, TB, or hepatitis related services
social marketing
Social Marketing
  • Planning and implementation of programs designed to bring about social change using concepts from commercial marketing
  • Social Marketing includes the use of
    • advertising, billboards
    • media campaigns, public service announcements
    • Web site development
    • brochures, palm cards
community level interventions cli
Community Level Interventions (CLI)
  • Seek to improve the risk conditions and behaviors in a community through a focus on the community as a whole
  • Work to alter social norms, policies, or characteristics of the social environment
  • Implement community-wide events, policy interventions, and structural interventions
cli and activities
CLI and Activities
  • Outreach to promote awareness of program services (e.g., agency meetings, conferences, health fairs)
  • Health communication/public information (e.g., presentations at community forums, use of print/electronic media, telephone hotline, information clearinghouse, resource library)
  • Social marketing campaigns
  • Community mobilization
individual level interventions ili
Individual Level Interventions(ILI)
  • Assist clients make plans for individual behavior change and ongoing behavioral appraisals
  • Facilitate linkages to services in both clinic and community settings in support of behaviors and practices that prevent transmission of HIV
  • Help clients make plans to obtain needed services
  • Provide health education/risk reduction counseling to one person at a time
ili activities
ILI Activities
  • Client intake
  • Assessment of clients’ strengths and developmental assets as well as risks for HIV infection or transmission
  • Comprehensive HIV prevention education and counseling, e.g., abstinence, risk reduction, interpersonal/ negotiation skills development
  • Prevention Case Management (PCM)
ili activities17
ILI Activities
  • HIV Counseling and Testing (on-site or through a direct referral agreement)
  • Partner notification assistance counseling and communication skills-building for HIV positive clients
  • Referral and follow-up to needed services (e.g., primary health care, STD screening/tx, pregnancy testing, substance use, mental health, housing, education, employment, legal services)
ili activities18
ILI Activities
  • Crisis interventions
  • Outreach to provide HIV prevention/risk- reduction education
  • Distribution of HIV prevention/risk- reduction supplies and materials (e.g., male and female condoms, dental dams, bleach kits, print/video/audio educational materials)
in conclusion emerging ahp strategies
In Conclusion…. Emerging AHP Strategies
  • Depends gravely on RECRUITMENT
  • And remains key in effectively working with the three primary areas of HIV prevention that CDC is emphasizing:
    • Early detection of persons who are HIV positive and referral to care services
    • Prevention interventions with persons living with HIV
    • Prevention with persons who are at high risk for HIV infection