Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Kjetil Tørseth UBA – Workshop ”Wirkungen, Risiken und Trends von Luftverunreinigungen in Deutchland Furchungsergebnisse und Anwendungen Berlin, June 10-11, 2002 EMEP activities and challenges of relevance for effect oriented activities
To be the main science based and policy-driven instrument for international cooperation in atmospheric monitoring and modelling activities, emission inventories and projections, and integrated assessment to help solve transboundary air pollution problems in Europe The EMEP vision;
Science – EMEP establishes sound scientific evidence to underpin, develop and evaluate environmental policies Partnership – EMEP fosters international partnership to find solutions to environmental problems Openness – EMEP encourages the open use of intellectual resources and products Sharing – EMEP is transparent and shares information Organization – EMEP is organized to integrate information on emissions, environmental quality, effects and abatement options
UN ECE Convention On Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Implementation Committee Executive Body WG Effects EMEP Steering Body WG Strategies WG Abatement Techniques ICP Freshwater TF (Norway) MSC-E TF on Integrated Assessment Modelling (Nederlands) TF NOx Techniques (Germany) ICPForest TF (Germany) MSC-W TF on Economic Aspects of Abatement Strategies (UK) TF VOC Techniques (Germany) ICP materials TF (Sweden) CCC CIAM ICP Crops TF (UK) TF on Emissions Inventories ICP Integrated Eco- systems Monitoring TF (Sweden) TF on Measurements and Modelling TF on Mapping (Germany) http://www.emep.int Joint TF on Health (WHO / ECEH) K.Tørseth: UN ECE.ppt
EMEP-CCC tasks • Recommendation of methods, preparation of manuals, • Field and laboratory intercomparisons, • Data and metadata collection, validation and storage, • Evaluate QA/QC-procedures • Data interpretation, • data reports and joint reports • comparison with CTM-estimates • deposition and exposure estimates • Representativeness • Development of network and measurement programme, • Coordinates the EMEP work on particulate matter (PM) MSC-W; acid, eutroph, ox, (emissions and modelling) • MSC-E; HM and POPs (emissions and modelling) • CIAM; Integrated assessment modelling
The new EMEP CTM (the unified model) Improved deposition scheme (surface specific dry dep) Flux based (ozone)(workshop June 2002) Improved spatial resolution (50x50 km2) The EMEP Assessment work Revision of the monitoring strategy Harmonisation of methods Cooperation, (network integration) Deposition of base cations Historical emission data Developments of relevance
The EMEP assessment report; An assessment report is being prepared where national experts and the EMEP centres are reviewing the information generated since the programme was initiated in the late 1970ies. The report will contain both national/regional evaluations as well as have an overall European perspective, and is to be completed in 2003 (will provide input to the WGE substantive report). This work will be based on information available on observations, model calculations of concentrations and depositions and flux calculation between countries. It will aim at evaluating trends in sulphur, nitrogen, ozone, heavy metals and POPs and discuss emission changes (including the influence of legislation), changes in climatology (meteorology or changes in surface characteristics) and data quality
Comparing 1980-82 vs. 1995-97 Deposition Exceedance
Improved spatial and temporal resolution Linking of scales (regional – local)(health aspects is the driving force) Site specific deposition and exposure estimates Site density, dry deposition monitoring, uptake modelling, other methods (e.g. Throughfall; ICP F, Expert Panel on Deposition) Importance of hemispheric transport Geographical coverage of observations New technologies Remote sensing Data assimilation Particulate matter Basecations Challenges for the measurement and modelling activities
The TFMM will review the EMEP monitoring strategy A strategy for particultate matter has been adopted and is currently under implementation A concept for the new strategy has been outlined considering Current status Shortcomings Need for more strict monitoring obligations New requirements New developments Need for conservatism Review of the EMEP monitoring strategy
Spatial characterisation of atmospheric composition and deposition amounts Regional features Detailed and site specific Temporal changes In relation to emission changes compliance natural variations CTM validation Understanding processes Model development Non-linearities Purpose of the monitoring programme
Long term data provision Provide a formal basis for monitoring Adequate and known quality Siting Methodology Training Quality assurance Data availability Expert involvement and scientific credibility Consider financial limitations Particular needs
A ”level” approach is proposed Open for the use of other relevant data Encourage national efforts Level 1; Mandatory programme, large number of sites Spatial and temporal trends Continuous sampling Level 2; Advanced measurements at selected sites Expensive or technically demanding Spatial and temporal trends Process oriented Continuous or campaigns Level 3; Research data Expensive or technically demanding Process oriented Campaigns or continuous
Level 2 and level 3 sites could be nominated as ”EMEP supersites” Important motivation factor Provides recognition for the data providers Countries themselves are responsible for nomination of sites Supersites could be topic specific (important overlaps) acidification/eutrofication fotooxidants heavy metals persistent organic compounds particles provide complementary data to the extent possible Monitoring required for the individual topics need revision Parameters, Time resolution, Spatial coverage, Methodologies Priorities between topics should be also revised Assessment report will give guidance
Distribution of Level 2 and level 3 sites Geographic consideration with respect to topic National involvement and interests Cost limitations/cost sharing Still need for monitoring campaigns Denuder campaigns EC/OC campaigns VOC campaigns .......
POPs POPs POPs POPs POPs POPs POPs
Applicable methods have previously not been available Improved micrometeorological methods have recently been developed (e.g. Eurotrac BIATEX2) Relaxed eddy accumulation method Ozone uptake modelling Improved dry deposition scheme in EMEP model Trends Requires special siting criteria Flux measurements
0 -1 WV -2 D3 -3 -4 WG -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 CA CL -14 SP D2 GM T + - B P D1 Conditional time averaged gradient method TAG FLUX (ng m-2 s-1) denuders Selected AMANDA fluxes All AMANDA fluxes 1/1 Wind power logger -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 AMANDA FLUX (ng m-2 s-1) Anemometer T sensor Solar panels AMANDA: -4.8 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 COTAG: -4.7 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 (178 days)
Trends in NH3 concentration, NH3 flux and Rc Speulder forest; From Erisman et al,
Monthly SO2 and meteo data at Speulder forest (1992 - 1998) From Erisman et al.,
Site representativity Improved spatial resolution, the UK example Trend studies (non-linearities) Gas to particle distribution (in combination with filterpack sampling What can we obtain from low cost methods like passive flux samplers and diffusion denuders?
Chemical composition of PM10 at Birkenes, S. Norway 1. Nov. 2000 - 31. Oct 2001 (average conc. = 6.5 µg m-3)
First Announcement EMEP/GERMAN/US WORKSHOP HEMISPHERIC AIR POLLUTION Trends and Intercontinental Transport of Photo-oxidants, Particles and Their Precursors across the Northern Hemisphere (Observations, Models, Policy Implications) Bad Breisig, Germany, 7-9 October 2002