Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Effects of Multiple Stabilized Enzymes on growth and performance of starter pigs A. Gueye 1 , C. R. Richardson 1 , and D. A. Haverkamp 2 1 Texas Tech University, Lubbock and 2 Natur’s Way Inc, Horton, KS ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
Effects of Multiple Stabilized Enzymes on growth and performance of starter pigs
A. Gueye1, C. R. Richardson1, and D. A. Haverkamp2
Increasing economic pressures being placed upon livestock producers along with the growing concern over the use of growth-promoting drugs has forced producers to search for ways to naturally increase the efficiency of feedstuff utilization. Recently research has begun to shift towards the enhancement of feed digestion by the means of using “natural” or nonantibiotic feed additives. Young pigs face many changes during the weaning transition. Abrupt changes in diet and environment increase the possibility for decreased intake, poor performance, and increase risk of disease. The resulting postweaning lag is commonly treated with subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics; however, the widespread use of these drugs may promote the development of resistant bacteria (Mathew et al., 1998), increase the risk of contamination of meat products and cause concern among some consumer groups (Braude, 1978; Kunin, 1993; Cassell, 1995).
The development of other feed additives that have a positive effect on pig performance can be a good alternative to the use of antibiotics as feed supplements. Multiple stabilized enzymes (MSE) is a feed additive designed to increase the digestibility and thus increase the feed conversion for all classes of livestock. Although MSE contains minerals and vitamins crucial to animals, it consists mostly of enzymes and microbial supplements. Probiotics, including yeast and lactobacilli cultures have been reported to improve performance of weaned pigs (Pollman et al., 1980; Lessard and Brisson, 1987; Kornegay et al., 1995). The objective of this experiment was to determine if MSE added to the basal diet of 21-day-old weaning starter pigs effects average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion.
Kg feed/kg gain
Figure 3. Effects of MSE on FC of starter pigs
d 0 to 14 control vs all other treatments and no fat vs fat (P = .02 each)
d 0 to 28 control vs all other treatments (P = .04)
These data indicate that the addition of the multiple stabilized enzyme product (MSE) into the nursery pig diets did not improve ADG. However, feed conversion did improve when MSE was fed. In order to maximize the effects of MSE in the animal we must have a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the different enzymes and microbials contained in the MSE product. This may allow a more extensive use for better improvement of livestock performance. Also, more investigation is needed to determine the interactions and the stability of MSE in mixture with other feed ingredients for more efficient use of the product.
Table 1. Ingredient composition of diets fed to pigs (as fed)
Ingredients Dietary Treatments
Control MSE MSE + 1% fat MSE + 2% fat
------------------------------- % --------------------------------
Grain sorghum, ground 58.70 58.60 57.60 56.60
Soybean meal (44%) 19.00 19.00 19.00 19.00
Beet pulp, ground 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
Fish meal 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
Fat (Veg./tallow blend) 3.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
Dical. phosphate .85 .85 .85 .85
Redmond clay .95 .95 .95 .95
Ditomaceous earth .50 .50 .50 .50
Magnesium oxide .05 .05 .05 .05
Salt, plain .25 .25 .25 .25
Vitamin and mineral premixa 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
MSEb ----- .10 .10 .10
Figure 1. Effects of MSE on ADFI of starter pigs
The objective of this experiment was to determine if Multiple Stabilized Enzymes (MSE) added to the basal diet of 21-day-old weanling pigs effect feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion
d 0 to 14 control vs all other treatments and no fat vs fat (P = .05 and .02,
d 14 to 28 control vs all other treatments; no fat vs fat; and MSE vs fat (P=
.008; .002; and .05, respectively)
d 0 to 28 control vs all other treatments; no fat vs fat; and MSE vs fat ( P =
.007; .002; and .06, respectively)
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Braude, R. 1978. Antibiotics in animal feeds in Great Britain. J. Anim. Sci. 46:1425-
Cassel, G. H. ASM Task Force Urges Board Program on Antimicrobials resistance.
Kornegay, E. T., D. Rhein-Welker, M. D. Lindemann, and C. M. Wood. 1995.
Performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs as influenced by yeast culture
additions to starter diets containing dried whey or one of two fiber sources. J. Anim.
Kunin, C. M. 1993. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs: A worldwide calamity. Ann.
Intern. Med. 118:557-561
Lessard, M., and G. J. Brisson. 1987. Effect of a lactobacillus fermentation product on
growth, immune response and fecal enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim.
Mathew, A. G., W. G. Upchurch, and S. E. Chattin. 1998. Incidence of antibiotic
resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolated from commercial swine farms. J. Anim.
Pollmann, D. S., D. M. Danielson, and E. R. Peo, Jr. 1980. Effects of microbial feed
additives on performance of starter and growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.
SAS. 1985. SAS Users Guide: Statistics, Version 5 ed. Statistical Analysis system
Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Steel, R. G., and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-
Hill Book Co., New York.
aPremix provided (per kilogram): 771,050 IU vitamin A; 110,150 IU vitamin D3; 5,875 IU vitamin E; 399 mg menadione; 2.6 mg vitamin B12; 1,762 mg riboflavin; 3,305 mg niacin; 2,203 mg d-pantothenic acid; 27,538 mg choline; 7.501 g Zn; 3.000g Mn; 8.751 g Fe; .876g Cu; and .01000g I.
bMSE was included in the basal diet at rate of .91 kg/metric ton
P > 0.05
Figure 2. Effects of MSE on ADG of starter pigs