Jazz/Rock Fusion • Miles Davis’s third period is called the Electric Period because of the radical change in the instrumentation of the band: • Miles Davis, electrically amplified and altered trumpet • Wayne Shorter, soprano sax • Lenny White, Jack DeJohnette, and Charles Alias, drums • Bennie Maupin, bass clarinet • Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, and Larry Young, electric keyboards • Harvey Brooks, Fender bass • Dave Holland, bass • John McLaughlin, electric guitar • Jim Riley, percussion • The use of electric and amplified instruments allowed the players to play faster, play more complex lines, and use electronic effects.
Miles Davis and Bitches Brew • In 1985 Miles Davis surrounded himself with electronic sounds and became a leader in the avant-guarde • Bitches Brew, recorded in 1969-70 for Columbia Records, shows Miles Davis’ early use of electronic instruments (electronic piano, Fender bass, and electric guitar). The album sold 400,000 copies • Bitches Brew was the starting point for jazz-rock • Electronic instruments and synthesizers • Collective improvisation • Free forms and rhythms • Unaccompanied solos on wind instruments
New Groups • Members of the Miles Davis band in Bitches Brew who formed their own bands: • Chick Corea (Return to Forever) • Joe Zawinul and Wayne Shorter (Weather Report) • John McLaughlin (Mahavishnu Orchestra) • Miles Davis electronically amplified the trumpet to produce “echo-plex”, “reverb”, “phase shifting” • Miles Davis believed he was carrying the entire burden for innovation in jazz • With Bitches Brew, Miles cast off all ties with the past and stopped listening to his old records
John McLaughlin • Listen to his guitar playing on Bitches Brew • A creation of the 1970s, McLaughlin formed the Mahavishnu Orchestra after his stint with Miles Davis • Added some Indian flavor to his recordings • Virtuoso, energetic, among the first to use the volume and metallic timbre typical or rock bands • Stacks of equipment on the stage - PAIN • Phase shifter, wah-wah, distortions, speed • Listen to Best of Mahavishnu
Chick Corea b. 1941 • b. 1941, Chelsea, MA • Chick (Armando) Corea, son of a professional musician • played with Latin bands of Willie Bobo and Mongo Santamaria in the 1960s • worked with trumpeter Blue Mitchell 1964-66 • Miles Davis 1968-1970 • 1970 formed an avant-garde trio “Circle” with Dave Holland, bass and Barry Altschul
Chick Corea • 1972 Anthony Braxton joined “Circle” • 1972 formed “Return to Forever” • a synthesis of jazz and Brazilian music • electric jazz-rock fusion • dual career - electric and acoustic groups • acoustic: “Matrix” recorded 2/26/68 Solid State SS 18039 (Miroslav Vitous, badd; Roy Haynes, drums • blues form • melody built of broken intervals • controlled intensity
Chick Corea • electric: “Spain” (by Chick Corea) Chick Corea and Return to Forever - Light as a Feather - Polydor P2 27148 • Chick Corea, electric piano; Joe Farrell, tenor sax, flute; Stanly Clarke, bass; Airto Moreira, drums, percussion; Flora Purim, vocals, percussion • Video: Chick Corea - Electric Workshop
Joe Zawinul b. 1932 • Hungarian, Czech and - as he himself insists - Sinti origins. • He began playing Austrian folk music, "gypsy tunes" and anything else he came across on the accordion or violin at the age of six. • Won a scholarship to Berklee but left after a few days to play with Canadian trumpet-player Maynard Ferguson's band.
Joe Zawinul • organized in 1971 after Zawinul left Cannonball and Shorter left Miles • original members were • Joe Zawinul, k; Wayne Shorter, ts; Miroslav Vitous, b; Alphonse Muzon and Airto Moreira, p • Zwinul and Shorter had worked together in Ferguson’s band • Weather Report’s style grew from 1971-1973 when rock rhythms, electric bass, and synth moved the group to a true fusion concept
Weather Report • The first ensemble that mastered synthetic sound for jazz • Led by keyboardist Joe Zawinul • First album 1971 - “Weather Report” • combination of technology and virtuosity • European electronic music studios • associations with Cannonball Adderley, Maynard Ferguson, Miles Davis • Trying to reestablish an audience • Discarded improvisation in the traditional sense
Weather Report • Album - “Weather Report” • Joe Zawinul, Keyboards • Wayne Shorter, Soprano Sax • Miroslav Vitous, Bass • Airto Moreira, Percussion • Alphonse Mouzon, Drums • “Eurydice” (Wayne Shorter) • The group lasted 15 years and was voted number one 15 time in a row in Down Beat.
Joe Zawinul and Wayne Shorter • Both worked with Miles Davis when “Bitches Brew” was recorded • Zawinul credits the Miles Davis recording “Birth of the Cool” as having a great impact on him • A majority of Weather Report’s music was written by Zawinul • Zawinul and Shorter’s last recording together as Weather Report was “This is This” (1986) • Zawinul did a solo album in 1986 called “Dialects” (4 synths and 4 drum machines)
Wayne Shorter b. 1933 • b. Newark, 1933 • studied Music Education at New York University • enlisted in the army and played with Horace Silver • after army played with Maynard Ferguson • 1959 joined Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers • 1964 joined Miles Davis • became a jazz composer “E.S.P.”, “Footprints”, “Nefertiti” • 1971 joined Joe Zawinul and formed Weather Report
Wayne Shorter • The personnel varied except for Zawinul and Shorter • Weather Report “Harlequin” (Tirro CD 2.12) • slow beat • short series of repeated chords • no tune • five players in picture • Wayne Shorter, saxophone • Alejandro Acuna, percussion • Jaco Pastorius, electric bass • Joe Zawinul, keyboards • Chester Thompson, drums
Michael Brecker • Saxophonist • Demonstrated that the electronic wind instrument (EWI) could be a real jazz instrument • Albums: • Michael Brecker (1987) • Don’t Try This At Home
Michael Brecker • Don’t Try This at Home(Tirro CD 3.2) Michael Brecker Quintet • Opening sounds like muted trumpet and strings - but isn’t • Brecker and MillerTenor, sax and EWI (Akai) • Brecker becomes a one-man sax section • Jack DeJohnette, jazz/rock drummer - light touch • Brecker plays melodies with the EWI which have several tones at once moving in parallel • Brecker has his tenor sax connected to a synthesizer • Herbie Hancock plays a great piano solo • Itsbynne Reel (TMG CD 2.9)
Stanley Jordan b. 1959 • Unique way of playing • Touch technique • Uses both hands to press the strings to the keyboard • Classical piano training • Graduated from Princeton with honors • CD The Best of Stanley Jordan • Jumpin’ Jack
David Sanborn b. 1945 • Studied sax at Northwestern and U. of Iowa • Played with • Stevie Wonder • Gil Evans • The Rolling Stones • Brecker Bros • Al Jerreau • Bob James • Paul Shaffer • Smoke Gets in Your EyesJazziz CD June 1995 track 3
Pat Metheny b. 1954 • Taught at the University of Miami and Berklee • Metheny is a highly proficient player of both standard and 12-string electric guitar • Since the 1980s has frequently employed the Synclavier guitar synthesizer
Pat Metheny • One of the most innovative jazz musicians and composers • Played with the Pat Metheny Group, with Lyle Mays, Steve Rodby and Paul Wertico • Recorded and/or toured with Jack DeJohnette, Michael Brecker, Sonny Rollins, Abbey Lincoln, Gary Burton, Chick Corea • CD - Steve Reich Different Trains
Yellowjackets • Formed in 1977 • Band size varied over the years and, in 2000, became a trio • The name “Yellowjackets” simply means something with a sting. • CD: “Yellowjackets - Sittin’ In It (1981)
Quincy Jonesb. 1933 • Born in Chicago, raised in Seattle • Studied at Berklee • Trumpet, arranger, and pianist with Lionel Hampton • Composer, record producer, artist, film producer, arranger, conductor, instrumentalist, TV producer,record company executive, magazine founder, and multi-media entrepreneur. He has mixed pop, soul, hip-hop, jazz, classical, African, and Brazilian music into many awesome compilations, conquering nearly every medium, including records, movies, and television
Quincy Jones • 1989 album Back On the Block, named "Album of the Year" at the 1990 Grammy Awards, melded legends Dizzy Gillespie, Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan, and Miles Davis with Ice T, Big Daddy Kane, and Melle Mel to bring be-bop to hip-hop for the first time • Back on the Block CD
Herbie Hancockb. 1940 • Started piano at age 5 • Performed a Mozart concerto with the Chicago Symphony at age 11 • Majored in Electrical Engineering and Music at Grinnell College • Joined Miles David in 1963 • 1986 Oscar for “Round Midnight” • 1994 Grammy Award Tribute to Miles Davis • 1998 launched Hancock Records • Distinguished Artist in Residence at Aspen • Artistic Director of the Theolonius Monk Institute of Jazz