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  1. The 1850s: Road to Secession

  2. Texas & Mexican Cession

  3. Slavery Throughout US History • 1787 - Northwest Ordinance • 1789 - U. S. Constitution • 1820 – Missouri Compromise • 1831-1844 – “Gag Rule” • 1832 – Nullification Crisis • 1836-1845 – Texas • 1846-1848 - Mexican War • 1850 – Compromise of 1850.

  4. Texas & Mexican Cession

  5. Compromiseof 1850

  6. Compromise of 1850 • CA a Free State • UT & NM Popular Sovereignty • TX Border Settlement • Slave Trade Banned in DC • Strict Fugitive Slave Law

  7. HarrietBeecherStowe 1811 - 1896 So this is the lady who started the Civil War.-- Abraham Lincoln

  8. Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 • Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. • 2 million in a decade!

  9. Other Effects • Underground Railroad • Personal Liberty Laws • Riots & Fights • Anthony Burns • Slavery as a “positive good”

  10. 1852Election Result

  11. Expansionist Young America in the 1850s Filibustering Expeditions

  12. Franklin Pierce • Expansion? • Filibustering Expeditions • Ostend Manifesto – Plans for Cuba • William Walker – Grey-Eyed Man of Destiny

  13. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Stephen Douglas Popular Sovereignty

  14. “Bleeding Kansas” Border “Ruffians”(pro-slavery Missourians)

  15. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr?

  16. “The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC)

  17. Rise of the 3rd Party System • Whigs falling apart… • Why?

  18. The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] • 1849  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC. • Nativists. • Anti-Catholics. • Anti-immigrants. • Why didn’t they last?

  19. Birth of the Republican Party, 1854 • Northern Whigs. • Northern Democrats. • Free-Soilers. • Know-Nothings. • Opponents of the Kansas- Nebraska Act.

  20. 1856 Presidential Election James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Know Nothing

  21. Signs of Sectionalism

  22. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857

  23. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 • Roger Taney • Decision • Effects • Reaction? • North? South? Others? • Douglas? Lincoln?

  24. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 A House divided against itself, cannot stand.

  25. Stephen Douglas & the Freeport Doctrine How to balance Dred Scott with PopularSovereignty?

  26. John Brown’s Raidon Harper’s Ferry, 1859

  27. Abraham LincolnRepublican 1860PresidentialElection John BellConstitutional Union John C. BreckinridgeSouthern Democrat Stephen A. DouglasNorthern Democrat

  28. Republican Platform 1860 • No extension of slavery • Protective tariff. • Internal improvements at federal expense – Pacific RR central route. • Free homesteads

  29. 1860 Election Results

  30. Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860

  31. Crittenden Compromise:A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity Senator John J. Crittenden(Know-Nothing-KY)

  32. Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861