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Computer Abstractions and Technology. Looking “up” assemblers, compilers, programs Looking “down” input devices (mouse, keyboard) output devices (VDT, printer) storage devices (memory, hard drive, ZIP drive) processor. Machine Code. Instructions that control the actions of the processor

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computer abstractions and technology
Computer Abstractions and Technology
  • Looking “up”
    • assemblers, compilers, programs
  • Looking “down”
    • input devices (mouse, keyboard)
    • output devices (VDT, printer)
    • storage devices (memory, hard drive, ZIP drive)
    • processor

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

machine code
Machine Code
  • Instructions that control the actions of the processor

Instruction Set

Vocabulary of commands understood by a certain architecture

Instruction Set Architecture

Abstract interface between hardware and lowest level of software

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

computer program abstraction
Computer Program Abstraction
  • High-level language programcompiled into
  • Assembly language program(processor-dependent)assembled into
  • Binary machine code program(processor-dependent)

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Advantages
    • more natural for reasoning about programs
    • improved productivity
      • easier to write programs at higher abstraction level
    • independent of computer processor

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

program libraries operating systems
Program LibrariesOperating Systems
  • Program libraries
    • Promote reuse
    • Avoid having to write from scratch each time
  • Operating System
    • Supervisor program (safer) managing system and application (user, less safe) programs

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

computer organization
Computer Organization

Classic components of a computer:

  • Input
  • Output
  • Memory
  • Datapath
  • Control

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

computer organization1
Computer Organization

Classic components of a computer:

  • Input
  • Output
  • Memory
  • Processor (Datapath + Control)

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

memory hierarchy
Memory Hierarchy
  • Primary (main) memory
    • fast (50-100ns access time), small, volatile
    • solid-state, no moving parts
    • implemented with DRAMs (since 1975)
  • Secondary memory
    • slower (5-20ms access time), larger, cheaper, persistent
    • mechanical
    • implemented with magnetic disks (since 1965)

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

road map
Road Map
  • Input (Chapter 8)
  • Output (Chapter 8)
  • Memory (Chapter 7)
  • Datapath (Chapters 4, 5, 6)
  • Control (Chapters 5, 6)

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology

also in chapter 1
Also in Chapter 1

§1.5 – Real Stuff: Manufacturing Pentium Chips

§1.6 – Fallacies and Pitfalls

§1.8 – Historical Perspective and Related Reading

§1.9 – Key Terms

Ch.1 - Computer Abstractions and Technology