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Ch 27: Reproductive System Goals: Identify the structures of the male and female reproductive systems, including the gross and microscopic anatomy of the organs, structures and accessory glands and their basic functions. Explain meiosis, spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

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Ch 27: Reproductive System


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ch 27 reproductive system

Ch 27: Reproductive System

Goals:

Identify the structures of the male and female reproductive systems, including the gross and microscopic anatomy of the organs, structures and accessory glands and their basic functions.

Explain meiosis, spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

Discuss the changes that occur in the female reproductive system during pregnancy.

general organization
General Organization

Gonads  gametes & hormones

Ducts  transport of . . . ?

Glands  secrete fluid

Perineal structures = external genitalia

male reproductive anatomy
Male Reproductive Anatomy
  • Primary reproductive organs produce gametes
  • Secondary reproductive organs . . .
  • Male reproductive and urinary tracts are partially shared

Fig 27-1

testes paired glands
Testes(paired glands)

4 month

  • Develop adjacent to kidneys
  • Descend into scrotum through inguinal canal (function of gubernaculum testis)
  • Peritoneal lining is carried along  lining of scrotum
  • Spermatic cord: bundle containing all the “duct work”
  • Cryptorchidism

Figs 27-2/3

scrotum

Cremaster muscle

Scrotum

Function: supports and protects testes

Structure: Skin & underlying superficial fascia

  • Dartos musclein dermis
  • Cremaster muscle - continuous with abdominal wall muscles (?)

Involuntary contraction (cremasteric reflex) in response to ________

Scrotal sac forms 2 separate chambers

structure of testes
Structure of Testes
  • Fibrous capsule – tunica albuginea – surrounds testes
  • Scrotal cavity – lined by tunica vaginalis – parietal and visceral layers
  • 200-300 lobules
  • 3 seminiferous tubules

Figs 27-4/5

from spermatocyte to spermatozoon
From Spermatocyte to Spermatozoon
  • Spermatogenesis: Meiosis of primary spermatocytes  spermatids
  • Spermiogenesis: Spermatid maturation into spermatozoa within Sertoli cells
  • Spermiation: Spermatozoon released into lumen
sustentacular sertoli cells
Sustentacular (Sertoli) Cells
  • Maintenance of blood testis barrier

special lumen fluid high in sex hormones, K+ and aa

protection from immune attack (due tosperm specific ag)

  • Suspend spermatids and support spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis

 FSH and Testosterone work via Sertoli cells

  • Secretion of inhibin to slow sperm production
  • Secretion of androgen-binding protein (ABP)
anatomy of a spermatozoon
Anatomy of a Spermatozoon

Mature sperm has 3 portions:

  • Head with acrosome (containing _______ )
  • Middle piece with nucleus and lots of ?
  • Tail - flagellum - (rotating in corkscrew fashion)

See fig 27-6

epididymis
Epididymis

~ 7 m long

Head - superior, receives spermatozoa

Body - distal and inferior

Tail - leads to ductus deferens

Functions:

1) Monitors and adjusts tubular fluid (stereocilia!)

2) Recycles damaged spermatozoa

3) Stores sperm and facilitates maturation

Rete testis and

Efferent ductules

pathway of sperm
Pathway of Sperm
  • Seminiferous tubules
  • Rete testis
  • Epididymis
  • Vas (ductus) deferens
  • Ampulla of vas deferens
  • Ejaculatory duct
  • Prostatic urethra
  • Membranous urethra
  • Penile (spongy) urethra

Fig 27.8

accessory glands
Accessory Glands

Provide for 95% of the seminal fluid

1) Seminal Vesicles

  • Paired, on back wall of urinary bladder
  • Tubular (~ 15 cm)
  • Produce 60% of semen, hormones, fructose, etc.
  • Activate sperm (leading to motility)

Fig. 27.8

prostate gland
Prostate Gland

20 - 30% of seminal fluid

Single, doughnut-shaped

Secretion contains:

  • Citrate
  • Seminal plasmin (mild antibiotic)
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) – blood test for ?
bulbourethral glands cowper s glands
Bulbourethral glands (Cowper’s glands)

Pea size, paired, at base of penis

Produce about 10% of semen

Alkaline mucus - function??

semen
Semen

2-5 ml ejaculate

Ejaculation of semen by pelvic floor and penile muscles (Sympathetic division induces peristalsis in tract)

Constituents:

1. sperm - 20 - 100 million sperm/ ml

2. seminal fluid - see above glands

3. enzymes - proteases and seminalplasmin

penis
Penis

Root - fixed to ischial ramus

Body with erectile tissues

Glans – enlargement of corpus spongiosum

Prepuce - foreskin – partially covers glans and surrounds external urethral meatus (may be removed in circumcision)

Preputial glands - produce smegma (supports bacterial growth, such as E. coli)

Fig 27.9

The End