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‘Ayur’‘veda’ – ‘Life’‘Science’. Udai SJC – 3 rd March Happy Holi Nikhil Rasiwasia. Ayurveda - Origins. Accurate dating is uncertain More objectively identifiable after the advent of Buddhism (c. 500 BC) Invasion of Darius, Alexander brought exchange

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ayur veda life science

‘Ayur’‘veda’ – ‘Life’‘Science’

Udai SJC – 3rd March

Happy Holi

Nikhil Rasiwasia

ayurveda origins
Ayurveda - Origins
  • Accurate dating is uncertain
    • More objectively identifiable after the advent of Buddhism (c. 500 BC)
    • Invasion of Darius, Alexander brought exchange
  • Significant medical content can be found in Rig-Veda (presumed origin c. 1500 BC)
  • Early writings on perishable bhojpatra
vedas
Vedas
  • It is the bedrock upon which Ayurveda rests
  • Considered to be composed around 1500-2000 BC
  • Four veda
    • Rig-veda : lots of stuff
    • Sam-veda : Soma sacrifice
    • Yajur-veda : entire sacrificial rite
    • Athar-veda : non-relegious (1200 BC), lots of medical text (fever, diarrhes, heart disease, jaundice, cough, leprosy)
  • Authoritative supplements
    • Brahmanas
    • Aranyakas (“the forest books", meaning treatises for sadhus living in the wilderness.)
    • Upnishads (self development spiritual text, philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God )
end of vedic period 500 bc
End of Vedic Period (500 BC)
  • Subsequent text deriving from primary vedic samhitas
    • Laid more emphasis on the dharma of self-development with explicit spiritual and philosophical content
  • Vedanta – derived from Upnishads
  • Ramayana
  • Mahabharat, Bhagavad Gita
  • Puranas – AD 320 to 520 - "tales of ancient times"
ayurveda and buddhism
Ayurveda and Buddhism
  • Buddhism
    • attempt to purify, restructure and reform older vedic traditions.
    • Comfortable adopting Ayurveda
    • Jivaka, - Taxila’s outstanding Ayurvedic physician, buddha’s personal physicin
  • Ashoka (convert to buddhism established many charitable hospitals)
  • Spread of Buddhism == spread of Ayurveda
  • Nagarjuna – AD 100, brought about significant advances in Ayurveda – father of iatrochemistry – preparation of medicinal mineral substances
westerm medicine and aurveda
Westerm Medicine and Aurveda
  • Hippocrates : Father of western medicine
    • Humoral theory – blood, phelgm, yellow bile, black bile
    • Dietary therapy, influence of seasons on health
  • Aristotle
    • Relied heavily on empirical observation and naturalistic classification
    • Four prime qualities: hot, cold, wet, dry
    • Four fundamental essence: air, water, fire, earth
chinese medicine and ayurveda
Chinese medicine and ayurveda
  • Oldest extant chinese medical text – Huang-di Nei-jing or Inner classic of the Yellow Emperor (300 BC)
  • Similarities – because of exchange of ideas via Buddhism and trade.
ayurveda and arab medicine unani tibb
Ayurveda and Arab Medicine (Unani Tibb)
  • Arab medicine by Avicenna (AD 980)
    • Produced Canon of Medicine, a compendium of the previous works of Hippocrates and Galen
  • Mostly based on Greek medicine (Unani)
  • Reports of exchange of ideas – Ayurvedic physicians were invited to baghdad to teach and organize hospitals
earliest texts
Earliest Texts
  • 760 BC: Charaka Samhita – herbal or plant based pharmacopoeia
  • 660 BC: Sushruta Samhita – Surgival approaches
  • 7th Century : Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata of Sindh – summary of previous two
  • AD 100: Nagarjuna – iatrochemistry
  • 1331: Madhava Nidana by Madhava of Kishkindha – Ayurvedic Diagnosis
  • 14th Century - Sarangadhara Samhita – Pulse Diagnosis
ayurveda in 19 th century
Ayurveda in 19th Century
  • Ayurveda flourished till 12th century, till the Muslim invasion
  • Not much progress from 12th to 17th century
  • British invasion : 1833 virtually all ayurveda schools closed, opening of British medical schools
  • 1920: a national revival and resurgence of interest in traditional Indian culture and practices
  • 1946: Formal govt. recognition and reacceptance of Ayurveda and resurgence of research.
  • Currently, however it holds a secondary place in medicine in India
  • Indian govt. officially recognizes as legitimate: Allopathy, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Unani Tibb, Ayurveda, and its cousins Siddha and Yoga.
ayurveda vs western science
Ayurveda vs Western Science
  • Philosophy
    • W: treats discrete disease entities
    • A : treats subtle dysphoria, whose disruptive trends may later develop into discrete disease.
  • Diagnostic
    • W: scientific objectivity and verifiability (accumulating statistically significant data) – “experience-distant”
    • A : pratyaksha (perceptive understanding of each individual) – “experience-near”
  • Treatment
    • W: Linear logic, categorical and uses a classification system of disease.
    • A : Maintenance of optimal health by daily proactive care, continually modified according to seasonal changes
  • Belief
    • A : Individual has the innate capacity for potential self-correction and primary self healing
why ayurveda
Why Ayurveda?
  • Health maintenance rather than disease treatment
  • System of diet and lifestyle
    • enhance the quality of life by dealing with subtle trends that might lead to actual disease
  • Compatible with those whose beliefs include naturalistic, spiritual and consciousness-oriented approaches
  • Often require intentional and sustained self-discipline, perseverance and active personal role.
ashtanga ayurveda
Ashtanga Ayurveda
  • Kayachikitsa
        • Internal Medicine
  • Shalyatantra
        • Surgery
  • Shalakya Tantra
        • Otolaryngology(ENT), Ophthalmology
  • Kaumarabhiritya
        • Obstetrics, Gynecology and Pediatrics
  • Agadatantra
        • Toxicology
  • Bhutavidya
        • Psychiatry
  • Rasayana
        • Antiaging and rejuvenation
  • Vajikarana
        • Reproductive and aphrodisiac medicine
theoretical foundations
Theoretical Foundations
  • Darshanas – ideological systems
    • Astika
      • Sankhya – nontheistic creation sequence - by Kapila
      • Yoga – Gradual liberation of human spirit to attain Samadhi – by Patanjali
      • Nyaya Darshana – monotheistic system, logical approach of apprehending the world using reason
      • Vaisheshika - postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms by Kanada
      • Purva Mimamsa (inquiry) – emphsis on discipline, ritual and service
      • Uttara Mimamsa or Advita Vedanta – spiritually oriented, emphasizes the spiritual base of reality, human misperception by Shankara (AD 780)
    • Nastika
      • Buddhism
      • Jainism
      • Lokayata
epistemology
Epistemology
  • Knowledge Process
  • From Nyaya Dharshana philosophy
  • Four cognitive faculties
    • Manas – mind as it experiences sensations
    • Chitta – transmitter from manas to higher cognitive functions
    • Ahamkara – self-identity that provides the individual with the experience of relative constancy.
    • Buddhi – most refined, discerning ability, intellect, wisdom
  • Four techniques of knowing
    • Pratyaksha – direct sensory perception
    • Anumana – inference
    • Sabda – authoritative statement
    • Upmana - Analogy
world view
World View
  • Essentially unitary and dynamic, integrated coherence with actively interdependent aspects
  • Dynamic aspect is fueled by constant interaction amongst three doshas –
    • Vata : movement
    • Pitta : transformation
    • Kapha : consolidation
      • the fundamental regulatory principles of the body’s physiological functioning
  • Interplay between them modulates the interaction of the Gurvadi Gunas (10 pairs of opposite qualities)
    • Characterize all perceptible substances
gurvadi gunas
Gurvadi Gunas
  • Shita/ushna
  • Snigdha/ruksha
  • Guru/laghu
  • Sthula/sukshma
  • Sandra/drava
  • Sthira/chala
  • Manda/tikshna
  • Mridu/kathina
  • Slaksha/khara
  • Picchila/sishada
english please
English please.
  • Shita/ushna - cold/hot
  • Snigdha/ruksha - wet,oily/dry
  • Guru/laghu - heavy/light
  • Sthula/sukshma - gross/subtle
  • Sandra/drava - dense/liquid
  • Sthira/chala - stable/mobile
  • Manda/tikshna - dull/sharp
  • Mridu/kathina - soft/hard
  • Slaksha/khara - smooth/rough
  • Picchila/sishada - sticky/clear
vedic standards
Vedic Standards
  • Four basic life goals (purushartha)
    • Dharma – individual's abidance with the inherent lawfulness in universe – purpose, duty, justice
    • Artha – possessions
    • Kama – Pleasure
    • Moksha – liberation
sankhya model of creation
Sankhya Model of Creation
  • Avayakta
    • pure existence in its unmanifest state
    • Absolutely transcendental, indescribable
    • Essence
      • Satyam – essential truth
      • Ritam – deep structure, self-correcting
      • Brihat – vast breath of its being
    • Two components
      • Purusha – primal immaterial matrix out of which all else emerge, pristine consciousness
      • Prakriti – when ‘purusha’ spontaneously moves, then at that moment the first material energy, prakriti, comes into being.
maha gunas
Maha Gunas
  • Three axiomatic attributes that are inherent to maha gunas (subtle)
    • Sattva – pure, clear, harmony
    • Rajas – dynamic movement, agitation
    • Tamas – interita, dullness
      • Highly rarefied potentials that impart direction and create a unique character.
ahamkara
Ahamkara
  • Next step in the developmental process of prakriti
  • A giant leap which eventually becomes most characteristically individualized in human experience
  • Experience of personal sense of self.
  • Next all steps are material
pancha mahabhuti
Pancha Mahabhuti
  • Ether/Space
  • Air
  • Fire
  • Water
  • Earth
ad