AH History. Guide 3 Summary. Missouri Compromise. The compromise was agreed in early 1850 and it admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state in order to maintain the balance of power
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Guide 3 Summary
“It is our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which province has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.” – John O’Sullivan.
President James K. Polk is mainly known for being the catalyst for the Mexican War (1846-48).
He wanted to gain the New Mexico and California territories.
Acceptable, as it was unlikely that new settlers would have interest in slavery – the climate in the new territories was unsuitable for cotton plantations.
Acceptable – it endorsed non-Federal intervention and meant that slavery could be expanded.What were the responses to popular sovereignty?
Slavery should never have a chance to expand.
Slave-owners should be allowed to take their ‘property’ anywhere they wished.Opposition to Popular Sovereignty:
Stephen Douglas was an American politician and was Democratic nominee for President in 1860.
He took part in a series of famous debates with Lincoln but lost to him in the 1860 election.
He was largely responsible for the compromise of 1850 that apparently settled slavery issues.
Caused political upheaval when he proposed the Kansas Nebraska act in 1854. 1820 compromise had guaranteed that slavery would not exist there. Douglas argued that the people of the territory should decide them slavery question by themselves, but that because of the unsuitability of the soil and climate for plantations, it would remain free.
He was committed to popular sovereignty
He was depicted as a Northern doughface- A traitor to his sectionStephen Douglas
Clay was a slave owner and sympathised with the south however he hated slavery. ‘With a foot in each camp’ he had a reputation as a conciliator.
He gave a four hour long speech on the 18 50 compromise
He warned the South about the evils of secession and assured the North that nature would check the spread of slavery more effectively than a thousand Wilmot Provisos
He was opposed to admitting Texas as a state because he felt that it would reawaken the slavery issue and provoke Mexico.Henry Clay
Calhoun led the pro-slavery faction in the Senate, opposing both abolitionism and attempts to limit the expansion of slavery into the western territories.
Calhoun was a major advocate of the Fugitive slave law, which enforced the co-operation of Free States in returning escaping slaves.
When he first entered Congress he had been an American nationalist, supporting increasing Federal power.
This changed in the late 1820s and developed the Doctrine of Nullification. This proclaimed the right of any state to overrule or modify any federal law deemed unconstitutional.
He claimed that citizens from every state had the right to migrate and take their property(slaves) with them.
He felt that the North had no right to ‘ride rough-shod’ over the rights of the South and if it continued then the South would have no choice but to secedeJohn Calhoun
NORTH both abolitionism and attempts to limit the expansion of slavery into the western territories.
Frederick Douglass urged defiance
Some saw it as a price to pay to save the Union
But most were disgusted by it.
Saw it as a test of Northern goodwill
Resented the Northern response to the law (see next slide).Reactions to the Act