9. ENTERPRISE NETWORKING & THE INTERNET - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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9. ENTERPRISE NETWORKING & THE INTERNET

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  1. 9.ENTERPRISENETWORKING&THE INTERNET

  2. ENTERPRISE NETWORK • HARDWARE; SOFTWARE; TELECOMMUNICATIONS, DATA RESOURCES • MORE COMPUTING POWER ON THE DESKTOP • NETWORK LINKING SMALLER NETWORKS *

  3. INTERNETWORKING • LINK NETWORKS • EACH RETAINS IDENTITY • INTO INTERCONNECTED NETWORK *

  4. CLIENT / SERVER MODEL • SPLITS PROCESSING • CLIENT • SERVER

  5. CLIENT • USER POINT - OF - ENTRY • COMPUTER / WORKSTATION / LAPTOP • USER INTERACTS WITH CLIENT • THRU GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) • ENTER & RETRIEVE DATA • ANALYZE & REPORT *

  6. SERVER • COMPUTER SATISFIES USER’S NEEDS • NOT VISIBLE TO USER • PROCESSING • ACCESS TO DATABASES *

  7. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE • DOING BUSINESS ELECTRONICALLY • AUTOMATION OF BUSINESS - TO -BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS *

  8. INTERNET CAPABILITIES CAPABILITY FUNCTIONS SUPPORTED E -MAIL PERSON -TO-PERSON MESSAGING; DOCUMENT SHARING USERNET NEWSGROUPS ELECTRONIC BULLETIN BOARDS CHATTING INTERACTIVE CONVERSATIONS TELNET LOG ON ONE COMPUTER, WORK ON ANOTHER GOPHERS LOCATE TEXT USING HIERARCHY OF MENUS ARCHIE SEARCH DATABASES FOR FILES AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOADING WAIS LOCATE FILES IN DATABASES USING KEYS FTP TRANSFER FILES FROM COMPUTER TO COMPUTER WORLD WIDE WEB HYPERTEXT LINKS TO RETRIEVE/FORMAT/DISPLAY INFORMATION

  9. ggalileo@univpisa.edu.it INDIVIDUAL OR ORGANIZATION NAME HOST COMPUTER DOMAIN LOCATION INTERNET ADDRESS

  10. RETRIEVAL ON THE INTERNET • GOPHER: Character-oriented tool; Locates Text Thru Easy-to-use Menus • ARCHIE: Tool for Key-word Searches of Databases; Provides File Names • WIDE AREA INFORMATION SERVERS (WAIS): Tool for Key-word Searches of Databases; Requires Database Names • FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP):Easy Tool for Transferring Remote Files *

  11. WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) • STANDARDS TO STORE, RETRIEVE, FORMAT, DISPLAY INFORMATION • CLIENT-SERVER ARCHITECTURE • GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE • DYNAMIC LINKS TO OTHER DOCUMENTS • EXPLOSION IN BUSINESS USE *

  12. WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) • HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML):Hypertext Tool to Create Dynamic Links to Same or Other Documents • BROWSER: Tool Supports Graphics, Hyperlinks, to Navigate Web • SEARCH ENGINE: Tool for Locating Sites, Information on Internet / WWW *

  13. WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) • HOME PAGE: WWW Text / graphics Screen; Welcomes User; Introduces Organization; Starting Screen for Document • WEB SITE: All WWW Pages Maintained by an Organization. *

  14. http//www.datamation.com GO TO WEB WEB SITE NAME TYPE OF ORGANIZATION WWW ADDRESS

  15. INTERNET BENEFITS TO ORGANIZATION • REDUCES COMMUNICATION COSTS • ENHANCES COMMUNICATION; COORDINATION • ACCELERATES KNOWLEDGE DISTRIBUTION • ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

  16. INTRANET • INTERNAL NETWORK • WWW TECHNOLOGY • FIREWALL: Security System to Prevent Invasion of Private Networks • OVERCOMES COMPUTER PLATFORM DIFFERENCES • OFTEN INSTALLED ON EXISTING NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE *

  17. BENEFITS & LIMITATIONS OF INTRANETS BENEFITS: • Standard Documents Always Current, Available. Less Expensive than Paper • Can Create, Coordinate New Documents • Virtual Conferencing • Project, Order Tracking Simplified *

  18. BENEFITS & LIMITATIONS OF INTRANETS LIMITATIONS: • Can’t Replace Large TPS Programs (e.g.: Payroll; Accounting; Production / Operations; Marketing) • Too Slow for High-Speed Data Transfer • Not yet as Functional as Groupware • Require Tight Security Control and Careful Management Planning *

  19. INTERNET CHALLENGES • SECURITY: Exposure to Thieves & Vandals; Hackers Steal, Use Passwords; Not Yet Safe for Large Business Transactions • TECHNOLOGY: Lack of Uniform Standards; Transfer of Graphics, Video can be Costly • LEGAL ISSUES: Need More Laws Governing Electronic Commerce; Are e-mail Contracts, Electronic Signatures Legal? *

  20. CONNECTIVITY MEASURE OF ABILITY OF COMPUTING DEVICES TO PASS & SHARE INFORMATION WITHOUT HUMAN INTERVENTION OPEN SYSTEMS: Software Able to Function on Different Computer Platforms. Nonproprietary Operating Systems, Applications, Protocols *

  21. CONNECTIVITY FOR NETWORKS • REFERENCE MODEL: Generic Framework for Thinking About a Problem • PROTOCOL: Statement of How Specific Task will be Performed • STANDARD: Approved Reference Models & Protocols; Determined by Standard-setting Groups *

  22. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP / IP) REFERENCE MODEL DEVELOPED BY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE IN 1972 1. APPLICATION: Provides Screen Presentations 2. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP): Breaks Data into Datagrams 3. INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP): Breaks, Sends Datagrams as Smaller IP Packets; Can Repeat Transmission to Increase Reliability *

  23. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP / IP) 4. NETWORK INTERFACE: Handles Addressing and Interface Between Computer & Network 5. PHYSICAL NET: Defines Electrical Transmission Characteristics for Sending Signal Along Networks to Destination *

  24. OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECT (OSI) INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE MODEL FOR LINKING DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPUTERS & NETWORKS. LAYERS: 1. PHYSICAL: Transmission of Data over Medium 2. DATA LINK: Packaging, Transfer of Packets; Error Checking 3. NETWORK: Routing Packets Over WAN *

  25. OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECT (OSI) 4. TRANSPORT: Ensures Reliable Data Delivery 5. SESSION: Establishes Communication Links on Network 6. PRESENTATION: Code Conversion for Data Presentation 7. APPLICATION: Specialized User Functions (e.g.: Operating System; File Transfer; e-mail) *

  26. INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN) INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR TRANSMITTING VOICE, VIDEO, DATA. WIDE RANGE OF SERVICE OVER PUBLIC TELEPHONE LINES. DEVELOPED LATE 1970s BY CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPHY & TELEPHONY (CCITT) *

  27. PROBLEMS POSED BY ENTERPRISE NETWORKING • CONNECTIVITY PROBLEMS • LOSS OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL • ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES • HIDDEN COSTS OF CLIENT / SERVER COMPUTING • NETWORK RELIABILITY & SECURITY *

  28. SOME SOLUTIONS • MANAGING THE CHANGE • EDUCATION & TRAINING • DATA ADMINISTRATION DISCIPLINE • PLANNING FOR CONNECTIVITY *

  29. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES • Enterprise Networking Requires Change of Mindset • Difficult to Enforce Connectivity Standards • Centralization vs. De-Centralization