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Harmonized Research on ITS. UNECE ITC: ITS Roundtable Geneva Feb 18, 2004. Y. Ian Noy , Ph.D., P.Eng., CPE Director, Standards Research and Development Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate Transport Canada. Transport Canada. Outline. The safety risks of in-vehicle ITS

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Harmonized research on its

Harmonized Research on ITS

UNECE ITC: ITS RoundtableGeneva

Feb 18, 2004

Y. Ian Noy, Ph.D., P.Eng., CPE

Director, Standards Research and Development

Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate

Transport Canada



  • The safety risks of in-vehicle ITS

  • Governments’ role and challenges

  • International Harmonized Research Agenda

  • IHRA and WP.29 liaison

Of all transportation related fatalities 94 are on the road
Of all transportation-related fatalities, 94% are on the road





WHO estimates 1,171,000 deaths annually costing $2,342,000,000,000

Focus on human error treat et al 1977
Focus on Human Error (Treatet al.1977)

Intelligent transport systems

Positioning & tracking

Transportation objectives

Digital maps

  • Reduce congestion

  • Improve safety

  • Increase efficiency

  • Improve comfort

  • Improve transit services

  • Reduce fuel consumption

  • Reduce emissions



Image processors

Information databases

Traffic management

Traffic monitoring

Smart cards

Automated aids

Intelligent Transport Systems

Intelligent automobiles
Intelligent Automobiles

  • In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) - compete with driving task:

    • telecommunications and infotainment systems (e.g., e-mail, Internet access), navigation systems

  • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)- support driving task:

    • collision warning systems, adaptive cruise control, lane departure warning, lane change aids, and parking aids.

Its safety or is it


Driving Task




ITS Safety, or IS IT?

  • ITS technology is safety neutral - Its implementation is safety critical

  • Safety impact depends largely on the extent to which the system supports users’ needs, and is compatible with human capabilities and limitations

Government s role
Government’s Role

  • Encourage technologies that are likely to have safety benefits

  • Discourage technologies that are likely to have an adverse effect on safety

Direct safety risks ivis
Direct Safety Risks - IVIS

  • Driver distraction

  • Driver overload

  • Driver confusion

Human causes of crashes nhtsa 1995




Vision 5%



Speed 6%



Surface 6%



gap/velocity 10%


Human Causes of Crashes (NHTSA, 1995)

Errors of Situation Awareness43%

Driver distractions

I was distracted for a moment. Go on

Driver Distractions

  • Visual (eyes off road)

  • Manual (hands off wheel)

  • Cognitive (mind off driving)

  • Auditory (sounds)

Sources of distraction
Sources of Distraction

  • Wireless communication (cell phones)

  • Navigation system destination entry

  • Map and other complex visual displays

  • In-vehicle office tasks (e-mail, PDA, Internet)

  • Infotainment (location-based services, DVD)

  • Warnings from driver assistance systems

  • Multifunction displays and controls

Levels of driver assistance
Levels of Driver Assistance

  • Information

  • Warning

  • Active controls (e.g., gas pedal)

  • Partial control of vehicle functions (steering, stop&go)

  • Complete control of vehicle (AHS)

Direct safety risks adas
Direct Safety Risks - ADAS

  • Driver distraction

  • Driver overload

  • Driver confusion

  • False or nuisance alarms

  • Command effect

Rationalizing automation
Rationalizing Automation

  • Each level has unique safety issues

  • Each level must coexist with other levels

  • Progression from one level to next is not incremental– it represents a radical change to the driving task

Indirect safety risks
Indirect Safety Risks

  • Behavioural adaptation

  • Increased exposure

  • Loss of skill & negative transfer

  • Violation of expectation (by non-users)

  • Collision migration (MV to SV, to other users, etc.)

Its safety research programs
ITS Safety Research Programs

  • Europe

    • EC FP5: HASTE

    • EC FP6: eSafety, AIDE, PReVENT, HUMANIST

    • France, UK, Germany (ADAM), Netherlands

  • North America


  • Japan

    • ASV

  • Australia

Key challenges for government
Key Challenges for Government

  • Traditional policy paradigms not suitable:

    • Design cycle shorter than policy cycle

    • Technology is diversifying rapidly

    • Behavioural science lags technology

  • Integration by consumer, not industry

  • Jurisdictional boundaries no longer valid

Need for new paradigm
Need for New Paradigm

  • Driver-system integration must be an integral part of motor transport system development.This has implications for:

    • System design

    • Regulatory policy

Enhanced safety of vehicles esv international harmonized research activities

the Netherlands







Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV):International Harmonized Research Activities

  • Australia

  • Canada

  • France

  • Germany

  • Hungary

  • Italy

  • Japan

Esv ihra working groups
ESV: IHRA Working Groups

  • Active safety

    • Intelligent Transport Systems

  • Passive safety

    • Advanced Offset Frontal Crash Protection

    • Pedestrian Safety

    • Biomechanics

    • Vehicle Compatibility

    • Side Impact

Ihra its objectives
IHRA-ITS : Objectives

  • to coordinate international policy-oriented research to minimize the potential adverse consequences of on-board ITS technologies.

  • to develop procedures for the evaluation of safety of in-vehicle information, control and communication systems.

  • to provide an international view of the state of research into understanding the safety impact of driver workload and distraction.

Aspects of system safety
Aspects of System Safety

  • System Reliability

    • Reliability of hardware and software, the propensity for malfunction and the potential to go into a dangerous and/or unanticipated safety mode.

  • Human Machine Interaction (HMI)

    • Key issues are function allocation, the design of interface, definition of dialogue between the user and the system.

  • Overall Traffic System

    • The aggregate effect on the traffic system as a whole.

Summary of activities
Summary of Activities

  • Conceptual Framework

  • Workshops

  • Survey of current research

  • Priority Projects

Ihra its priority projects
IHRA ITS Priority Projects

  • Development of a harmonized safety evaluation methodology framework

  • Driver understanding and expectation of ITS systems

  • Human factors principles checklist

  • Normative data on naturalistic driving behavior

  • Simulator reference test scenarios

  • Improved secondary task methodology for evaluating safety effects of driver workload

  • Harmonization and validation of surrogate safety measures

Importance of its safety research
Importance of ITS Safety Research

  • Elaborates the role of governments with respect to ITS safety

  • ITS safety is currently unregulated; therefore, there is a reasonable prospect for harmonized policies based on shared scientific understanding of the issues

Ihra wp 29 liaison
IHRA-WP.29 Liaison

  • IHRA research focus

    • Summarize state of knowledge

    • Coordinate joint research

    • Develop test procedures

  • WP.29 regulatory focus

    • Identify regulatory needs and priorities.

  • IHRA could coordinate the regulatory development research needed to support WP.29 work program