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GHSGT Review. Ecology. Organizational Levels. Species – group of the same organisms that are able to reproduce viable offspring that grow to maturity and reproduce viable offspring. Organizational Levels.

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organizational levels
Organizational Levels
  • Species – group of the same organisms that are able to reproduce viable offspring that grow to maturity and reproduce viable offspring
organizational levels3
Organizational Levels
  • Population – group of individuals of the same species living at the same place at the same time
organizational levels4
Organizational Levels
  • Community – groups of different populations living at the same place at the same time
organizational levels5
Organizational Levels
  • Ecosystem – all the living and nonliving components of a particular area
  • Biotic – living
  • Abiotic - nonliving
organizational levels6
Organizational Levels
  • Biosphere – where living things are found on Earth
  • 5 milesabove surface

In atmosphere

  • 5 milesbelow surface in ocean

5 mi

5 mi

organizational levels7
Organizational Levels
  • Species
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biosphere
nature the ultimate recycler
Nature: The Ultimate Recycler
  • 3 main cycles found in nature
      • H2OWATER
      • N2 NITROGEN
      • C CARBON
the water cycle
The Water Cycle
  • Surface water evaporates
  • Drops condense (clouds)
  • Precipitation falls (rain snow sleet hail)
  • Water replenishes ground water stores (aquifers), lakes streams rivers
the nitrogen cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Lightning fixes some, falls to ground
  • Most must be fixed to a usable form so plants can absorb it
the nitrogen cycle11
The Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria – fix atmospheric N2 into a form that plants can use
  • Legumefamily are the plants that can fix nitrogen
  • Ex: beans, clover
the carbon cycle
The Carbon Cycle
  • Animals breathe in oxygen and

breathe out carbon dioxide

  • Plants take in carbon dioxide and

release oxygen

energy flow in ecosystems
Energy Flow in Ecosystems
  • Remember – energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It gets used (transformed)
  • Consumed energy must be replaced
  • All living things require energy
electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic Waves

Ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth is the SUN

photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • Green plants are photosynthetic
  • Organelles called chloroplasts contain pigment chlorophyll (green)
photosynthesis16
Photosynthesis
  • CO2 + H20 → C6H12O6 + O2

Carbon dioxide and Water

in the presence of sunlight yield

Sugar and Oxygen

autotroph v heterotroph
Autotroph v. Heterotroph
  • Autotrophs can automatically make their own food from sunlight
  • Heterotrophs must obtain energy a different way
producers
Producers
  • Can produce their own energy from sunlight
  • They are GREEN
  • How energy enters the ecosystem
consumers
Consumers

Must consume (eat) other organisms to obtain energy

omnivores
Omnivores
  • Eat both consumers and producers (meat and plants)
detrivores
Detrivores
  • Break down organic molecules
  • Recycle dead plant and animal remains & return it to the food chain
  • Ex: earthworms

Dung beetles

decomposers
Decomposers
  • Break down dead organisms causing them to rot
food chain
Food Chain
  • Shows flow of energy as it gets passed from one trophic level to the next

Producer1st Order

2nd Order 3rd Order Consumers

OR

Producer Primary

Secondary Tertiary Consumers

food web
Food Web
  • Shows interdependent organisms within an ecosystem
  • What-eats-what
trophic level

TrophicLevel

A step in the transfer of energy within an ecosystem

trophic levels energy pyramid
Trophic Levels – Energy Pyramid

Tertiary Consumer

3rd Order Consumer

2nd Order Consumer

Secondary Consumer

1st Order Consumer

Primary Consumer

Producer

energy pyramid questions
Energy Pyramid Questions
  • 90% of the energy consumed gets used at each trophic level
  • Only 10% of the energy gets passed on to the next trophic level
  • Energy at each trophic level is used

in the normal course of living

(metabolic processes)

  • The excess energy not used gets released as heat
theory of evolution
Theory of Evolution
  • Species change over timein response to their environment
  • Those individuals that are able to adapt to their environment will survive and pass their genes on to the next generation
natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Term used to describe the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms that results from the presence or absence of particular inherited traits
natural selection33
Natural Selection
  • Example: the peppered moth changed from a white moth with black spots
natural selection34
Natural Selection
  • Example: the peppered moth changed from a white moth with black spots
natural selection35
Natural Selection
  • To a black moth with white spots
natural selection36
Natural Selection
  • To a black moth with white spots
natural selection the peppered moth
Natural SelectionThe Peppered Moth

White moth with black spots

Black moth with white spots

natural selection the peppered moth38
Natural SelectionThe Peppered Moth

White moth with black spots

Black moth with white spots

charles darwin
Charles Darwin
  • Saw birds called finches on the islands
  • They had adapted to their environment
  • Had different kinds of beaks and feet
  • They changed over time in response to the food that was on their island
adaptation through nat l selection
Adaptation through Nat’l Selection
  • Galapagos giant tortoises
  • Also iguanas (lizards)
natural selection41
Natural Selection

Sometimes called

“Survival of the Fittest”

symbiosis
Relationship between two organisms

Means “living together”

Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism

Competition

Predation

Commensalism

Parasitism

Symbiosis
predation
Predation
  • One eats
  • One is eaten
  • Predator – eats
  • Prey – gets eaten

Think -(they BETTER pray)

Example: fox and squirrel

mutualism
Mutualism
  • Both organisms benefit
  • Is MUTUALLYBENEFICIAL
  • Ex: leaf cutter ants & acacia tree
parasitism
Parasitism
  • One benefits
  • One is harmed or weakened
  • Parasite – benefits
  • Host – is used as source of nutrients
  • Ex: ticks on dog

tapeworm

mistletoe

commensalism
Commensalism
  • One benefits
  • One is neither harmed nor helped
  • They CO-operate with each other
  • ex: shark & remora FISH
competition
Competition
  • Both are competing for the same resource
  • Could be food, habitat, water, nutrients, sunlight
  • ex: panda & humans (bamboo), fire ants,

Kudzu, plants

primary succession
Primary Succession
  • Occurs in places where there were no living things before
  • Example: on rock after a volcano erupts
primary succession49
Primary Succession
  • The first plants to inhabit the area are called the pioneer species
  • Lichens can live on bare rock and help create soil for other plants to live
primary succession50
Primary Succession
  • Over time annual plants and grasses begin to grow
primary succession51
Primary Succession
  • Birds, rabbits, and insects come to eat the plants and help spread seeds from other areas
  • Shrubs begin to replace the grasses
primary succession52
Primary Succession
  • Squirrels and deer help spread seeds from pine trees that become the dominant species
primary succession53
Primary Succession
  • Over time they are replaced by hardwood trees like oak and maple
  • A mature forest is called a climax community
secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • Natural disturbances like fire can destroy the ecosystem.
  • Although the forest is gone the soil remains
secondary succession55
Secondary Succession
  • Occurs when seeds & roots begin to grow grasses and annual plants, then shrubs, then pine trees and then finally hardwood trees and a climax community forms again
succession
Succession
  • Is the change in dominant species over time
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