Beyond Words Eye contact & Body language: 55% of impact Voice (tone/rate/volume): 35% of impact Pheromones ? Physical contact ? Words: only 10% of total impact!
A question of neuroscience: What factors will make the mind maximally receptive and innovative?
A Shopping List… • Gain trust ….need to understand belief systems
The biological basis of the individual mind Newborn 3 Months 15 Months 2 Years
AREA OF BRAIN CONTROLLING AN INDIVIDUAL FINGER A Pascual-Leone et al J Neurophysiology (1995) 743 1037-1045
A shift from SENSORY… ..to COGNITIVE experience
Developing And Losing One’s Mind… …Reflected In Brain Cell branching (Connections)
Having a sensational time… Letting yourself go…..
THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE MIND IS THE PERSONALISATION OF THE BRAIN THROUGH UNIQUE DYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS OF NEURONAL CONNECTIONS, DRIVEN BY UNIQUE EXPERIENCES
Harvey Whitehouse: Neuronal connectivity established by Higharousal, low frequency Low arousal, high frequency
Extreme ideologies are NOT based on unbridled emotion…. ……but on a collective story!
A Shopping List… • Gain trust • Adopt non-emotional stance
Mature prefrontal processing is not complete until >20 yrs old xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
The case of Phineas Gage: Damage to prefrontal cortex led to excessive recklessness
‘Intellectual manifestations feeble, being exceedingly capricious and childish… impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires.... A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations,.... His mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was ‘no longer Gage.’
The Consequences of Symbolic Thinking Words, images, and behaviours can stand for something, especially a self That self can be have status, ie relate to others The self can have a past and a future, ie a life story In a life story, actions have irreversible consequences (unlike the computer screen) Consequences entail ‘meaning’ over time and free us up from the sensory press of the present
(I) INVERSE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BMI AND PREFRONTAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY IN HEALTHY ADULTS. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K. Obesity (2009) 17 pp 60-65.
(II) DECISION-MAKING IN OBESITY: A STUDY USING THE GAMBLING Pignatti R, Bertella L, Albani G, Mauro A, Molinari E, Semenza C. Eat Weight Disord. (2006) 11 pp126-132.
Arousal Dopamine Addiction Reward
2 Basic Modes for theHuman Brain? Prefrontal under-function? Strong feelings Sensory Here-and-now External environment dominates Little ‘meaning’ Reduced sense of self No time-space Infants and children More Prefrontal activation? Thinking dominates Cognitive Past / present / fantasy Internal perceptions dominate Personalised ‘meaning’ Strong sense of self Clear time-space reference Older children and adults Less Dopamine Dopamine
How might we monitor the inhibitory effects of dopamine on prefrontal cortex on the rest of the brain? Electrophysiology fMRI Linking the macroscopic and the microscopic?
Neuronal assemblies formed/disbanded in less than a second Grinvald et al., 1994
NEURONAL ASSEMBLIES Effect of anaesthetic depth on assembly dynamics 1 mm Deeper anaesthesia 20 ms after stimulus hyperpolarisation depolarisation
Introducing the Concept of: NEURONAL ASSEMBLIES video clip time = 30 msec area = 2 mm sq Space Resolution: microns (fMRI mm) Time Resolution: msec (fMRI sec)
Effects of an ‘Enriched’ Environment on neuronal assemblies Control Enriched 2 mm Introducing the Concept of: NEURONAL ASSEMBLIES video clip time = 30 msec area = 2 mm sq Space Resolution: microns (fMRI mm) Time Resolution: msec (fMRI sec)
STATES ASSOCIATED WITH A SMALL ASSEMBLY Childhood: modest connectivity Dreaming: weak sensory stimulus Schizophrenia: abnormal modulation Fast paced sports: competing assemblies Raves: drug action; no cognitive content