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Reference Checking

Reference Checking

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Reference Checking

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  1. Reference Checking

  2. Would You Hire This Applicant?Exercise 5.7 (pages 79-80 in your workbook)

  3. Why Check References? • Check for resume fraud • Find new information about the applicant • Check for potential discipline problems • Predict future performance

  4. Why Check? 1/3 resumes contain inaccurate info over 500,000 people have bogus degrees Verifying Information truth error embellishment fabrication Obtaining Missing information unintentional omission strategic omission deceptive omission Alternative methods bogus application items social security reports hire professional reference checkers Checking for Resume Fraud

  5. Getting Info Can Be Difficult

  6. Types of Information personality interpersonal style background work habits Problems references seldom agree people act in different ways in different situations Alternative Measures psychological tests letters of recommendation biodata resumes interviews Finding New Information About the Applicant

  7. Criminal Records Previous employers Motor vehicle records Military records Credit reports Colleges and universities Neighbors and friends Checking for Potential Discipline Problems

  8. Obtained from local and state agencies Check with each jurisdiction Only convictions can be used (EEOC Decision No. 72-1460) “Reasonable amount of time” between release and decision to hire In using convictions, employer must consider Nature and gravity of offense Amount of time that has passed since the conviction and/or completion of the sentence The nature of the job held or being sought Criminal Records

  9. Credit Checks • Purpose • Predict motivation to steal • Determine character of applicant • Fair Credit Reporting Act • Order through a Consumer Reporting Agency (CRA) • Provide written notice to applicant to you will be checking credit • Get applicant’s written authorization to check credit • If adverse action is to be taken • Provide applicant with “Pre-adverse Action Disclosure” which includes copy of credit report • Inform applicant that they will not be hired due to credit check and provide name of CRA and notice of applicant rights to appeal within 60 days

  10. References are not good predictors of performance Uncorrected validity is .18 References are not reliable (r = .22) High correlation between two letters written by the same person for two people than between letters written by two people for the same person They say more about the person writing the letter than the person being written about References are lenient Fewer than 1% of applicants are rated below average! Predicting Future Performance

  11. Why the Leniency? • Applicants often choose their own references • Applicants often have the right to see their files • Former employers fear legal ramifications

  12. Positive Neutral Negative

  13. References Often Have a Limited Opportunity to View Behavior

  14. Potential Legal Ramifications • Negligent hiring • Invasion of privacy • Negligent reference • Defamation

  15. Defamation • Three types • libel (written) • slander (oral) • self-publication • Employers have a conditional privilege that limits their liability

  16. Truthful statements were true not true, but reasonable person would have believed them to be true opinions are protected unless reference infers opinion is based on facts that don’t exist Made for a legitimate purpose Made in good faith don’t offer unsolicited information statements cannot be made for revenge avoid personal comments Made with the permission of the applicant use waivers let the former employee know if the reference will not be positive Avoiding Liability for DefamationEmployers will not be liable if their statements were

  17. Reference giver’s ability to articulate The extent to which the referee remembers the applicant The words used by the reference giver cuter than a baby’s butt she has no sexual oddities that I am aware of I have an intimate and caring relationship with the applicant Jill is a bud that has already begun to bloom Extraneous Factors Surrounding the Reference

  18. Trait Method of Evaluating Letters of Recommendation • Peres and Garcia (1962) • The Technique • Read each letter • Highlight traits in each letter • Place each trait into one of five categories • Mental agility (openness to experience) • Vigor • Urbanity (Extroversion) • Cooperation-Consideration (Agreeableness) • Dependability-Reliability (Conscientiousness) • Total the number of traits per category • Divide the number of traits per category by the total number of traits

  19. Dear HR Director, Ms. Rachel Green asked that I write this letter in support of her application as an assistant manager and I am pleased to do so. I have known Rachel for six years as she was my assistant in the accounting department. Rachel is one of the most popular employees in our agency as she is a kind, outgoing, sociable individual. She has a great sense of humor, is extroverted, and is very helpful. In completing her work, she is independent, energetic, and motivated. Mental Ability:0 Urbanity: 5Vigor: 3 Cooperation: 2Dependability: 0

  20. Dear HR Director, Ms. Monica Geller asked that I write this letter in support of her application as an assistant manager and I am pleased to do so. I have known Monica for six years as she was my assistant in the accounting department. Monica always had her work completed accuratelyand promptly. In her six years here, she never missed a deadline. She is very detail oriented, critical, and methodical in her problem solving approach. Interpersonally, Monica is very caring and helpful. Mental Ability:0 Urbanity: 0Vigor: 0 Cooperation: 2Dependability: 6

  21. Validity of the Trait Method

  22. Using the Trait ApproachExercise 5.1

  23. Elijah Craig Dear Mr. Daniels: It is a pleasure to write this letter in support of Mr. Elijah Craig. I have known Elijah for 10 years as he was an accounting associate in our firm. Elijah is a very dependable, careful, and precise person. He amazes all of use at the office with his attention to detail and with the accuracy of his reports. To the best of my knowledge, Elijah always has his work completed on time. Elijah is a considerate employee who is a real team player.

  24. Elijah Craig Dear Mr. Daniels: It is a pleasure to write this letter in support of Mr. Elijah Craig. I have known Elijah for 10 years as he was an accounting associate in our firm. Elijah is a very dependable, careful, and precise person. He amazes all of use at the office with his attention to detail and with the accuracy of his reports. To the best of my knowledge, Elijah always has his work completed on time. Elijah is a considerate employee who is a real team player.

  25. James Beam Dear Mr. Daniels: It is a pleasure to write this letter in support of Mr. James Beam. I have known Jim for 10 years as he was an accounting associate in our firm. Jim is one of the most intelligent, original, and creative individuals I have ever met. He is always developing new ideas. In addition to being so smart, Jim has a great sense of humor, is very friendly, and always cheerful.

  26. James Beam Dear Mr. Daniels: It is a pleasure to write this letter in support of Mr. James Beam. I have known Jim for 10 years as he was an accounting associate in our firm. Jim is one of the most intelligent, original, and creative individuals I have ever met. He is always developing new ideas. In addition to being so smart, Jim has a great sense of humor, is very friendly, and always cheerful.

  27. Answer to Exercise 6.1

  28. The Real Meaning of Recommendations

  29. The Real Meaning of Recommendations

  30. Employee Selection Methods

  31. Training & Education Experience Applications/Resumes Biodata Interviews Knowledge Ability Cognitive Physical Perceptual Skills Work Samples Assessment Centers References Personality & Character Personality Tests Integrity Tests Medical Medical Exams Psychological Exams Drug Testing Personnel Selection Methods

  32. Let's Talk What types of employment tests have you taken?

  33. Predicting Performance Using Training and Education

  34. Ratings of Training • Education • Work-Related Training • Military

  35. Does Education Predict Performance?

  36. Summary of Meta-Analyses

  37. Education and Incremental Validity • Schmidt & Hunter (1998) say no • Cognitive ability (r = .51) • Cognitive ability and education (r = .52)

  38. Validity of GPA • GPA is a valid predictor of performance on the job, training performance, starting salary, promotions, and grad school performance • GPA is most predictive in the first few years after graduation (Roth et al., 1996) • GPA will result in high levels (d=.78) of adverse impact (Roth & Bobko, 2000) • People with high GPAs • Are intelligent (r = .50; Jensen, 1980) • Are conscientious (r = .34; Bevier et al., 1998)

  39. Validity of GPAMeta-Analysis Results

  40. Lingering Questions • Is the validity of education job specific? • What is the actual incremental validity of education over cognitive ability? • Why would education predict performance? • Knowledge • Liberal arts skills • Mental ability • Motivation

  41. Predicting Performance Using Applicant Knowledge • Taps job-related knowledge • Good validity (ρ = .48) • Face valid • Can have adverse impact

  42. Predicting Performance Using Applicant Ability

  43. Cognitive Ability Tests • High validity (ρ = .51) • Predicts training and job performance for all jobs (Hunter, 1986) • The more complex the job, the better cognitive ability tests predict performance

  44. Cognitive Ability Tests Strengths • Highest validity of all selection measures (ρ = .51) • Easy to administer • Relatively inexpensive • Most are not time consuming

  45. Cognitive Ability Tests Weaknesses • Likely to cause adverse impact • Low face validity • Not well liked by applicants

  46. Sample Cognitive Ability TestExercise 5.2

  47. Perceptual Ability Tests • Perceptual Ability (Fleishman & Reilly (1992) • Vision (near, far, night, peripheral) • Depth perception • Glare sensitivity • Hearing (sensitivity, auditory attention, sound localization)

  48. Psychomotor Ability Tests • Psychomotor Ability (Fleishman & Reilly (1992) • Dexterity (finger, manual) • Control precision • Multilimb coordination • Response control • Reaction time • Arm-hand steadiness • Wrist-finger speed • Speed-of-limb movement

  49. Physical Ability • Used for jobs with high physical demands • Three Issues • Job relatedness • Passing scores • When the ability must be present • Two common ways to measure • Simulations • Physical agility tests

  50. Physical Ability Physical Abilities (Fleishman & Reilly, 1992) • Dynamic strength (strength requiring repetitions) • Trunk strength (stooping or bending over) • Explosive strength (jumping or throwing) • Static strength • Dynamic flexibility (speed of bending or stretching) • Extent flexibility (Degree of bending or stretching) • Gross body equilibrium (balance) • Gross body coordination (coordination) • Stamina