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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA. THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA. DE-STALINIZATION. Effects of “Secret Speech”. Could no longer hold political prisoners. Uproar in international communist community. Reverberations in Party. “ anti-party” group. THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA. DE-STALINIZATION. 22 nd Party Congress.

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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

DE-STALINIZATION

  • Effects of “Secret Speech”
  • Could no longer hold political prisoners
  • Uproar in international communist community
  • Reverberations in Party
  • “anti-party” group
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

DE-STALINIZATION

  • 22nd Party Congress
  • Khrushchev broadened attack to include colleagues
  • Removal of Stalin’s body from mausoleum
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

CULTURAL “THAW”

  • Greater freedom of expression for artists & intellectuals
  • Some correction of historical falsification
  • Some opening of society
  • But retained censorship & control; socialist realism

Ilya Ehrenburg, The Thaw

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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

ECONOMIC POLICIES

  • Agricultural Reforms
  • Abolished “Machine Tractor Stations”
  • Tried to consolidate farms into large kolkhozes
  • Raised prices on food products, lowered taxes
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

ECONOMIC POLICIES

  • Agricultural Reforms
  • Increased investment in fertilizer & machinery
  • “Virgin Lands Program”
  • Emphasized growing of corn
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

ECONOMIC POLICIES

  • Industrial Reforms
  • Biggest problem = overcentralization
  • Eliminated central economic ministries
  • replaced with SOVNARKHOZY
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

FOREIGN POLICY

  • Adopted policy of “PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE”
  • But continued expansion of Soviet influence
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

FOREIGN POLICY

  • Problems in Eastern Europe
  • De-Stalinization led to revolt in Poland & Hungary
  • Forced to build Berlin Wall to stop mass exodus to West

Soviet invasion of Hungary, 1956

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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

FOREIGN POLICY

  • Problems with China
  • Mao wanted military aid against Taiwan
  • Also wanted nukes
  • Khrushchev refuses – led to Sino-Soviet split
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

FOREIGN POLICY

  • Problems over Cuba
  • 1959: Fidel Castro stages communist take-over
  • 1961: U.S. tried failed coup: Bay of Pigs
  • Khrushchev tries to put nukes in Cuba
  • Kennedy blockades Soviet ships, Khrushchev forced to back down
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THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

DECLINE AND FALL

  • The Three “Cs”: Corn, China, Cuba
  • Denounced for “hair-brained schemes, half-baked conclusions, bragging & bluster”
  • Deposed Oct. 1964
  • But reforms set stage for Gorbachev & perestroika

5-story “Khrushchevka”

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