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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance with recognition or onset during pregnancy ’, irrespective of the treatment with diet or insulin. GDM-DEFINITION. GDM-WHOM TO SCREEN?.

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Gdm definition

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is

defined as ‘carbohydrate intolerance with

recognition or onset during pregnancy’,

irrespective of the treatment with diet or



Gdm whom to screen


1. Testing should be considered in all adults who are overweight (BMI $25 kg/m2*) and who have one or more additional risk factors:

physical inactivity

first-degree relative with diabetes

high-risk race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American,Pacific Islander)

women who delivered a baby weighing .9 lb or who were diagnosed with GDM

hypertension (blood pressure $140/90 mmHg or on therapy for hypertension)

HDL cholesterol level ,35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or a triglyceride level 250 mg/Dl (2.82 mmol/L)

women with PCOS

A1C $5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing

other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosisnigricans)

history of CVD

Gdm when to screen


Screen for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes at the first prenatal visit in those with risk factors, using standard diagnostic criteria.

In pregnant women not previously known to have diabetes, screen for GDM at 24–28 weeks’ gestation, using a 75-g2-h OGTT and the diagnostic cut points.

Screen women with GDM for persistent diabetes at 6–12 weeks’ postpartum,

using a test other than A1C.

Women with a history of GDM should have lifelong screening for the development of diabetes or prediabetes at least every 3 years.

Women with a history of GDM found to have prediabetes should receive lifestyle interventions or metformin to prevent diabetes.

Gdm how to screen


Perform a 75-g OGTT, with plasma glucose measurement fasting and at 1 and 2 h, at 24–28 weeks’ gestation in women not previously diagnosed with overt diabetes.

The OGTT should be performed in the morning after an overnight fast of at least 8 h.

Diagnostic criteria of gdm

  • The diagnosis of GDM is made when any of

    the following plasma glucose values are exceeded:

  • c Fasting $92 mg/dL (5.1 mmol/L)

  • c 1 h $180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L)

  • c 2 h $153 mg/dL (8.5 mmol/L)