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Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza in Pigs. Renita W. Marshall, DVM, MS Southern University System Southern University Agricultural Research & Extension Center EDEN Webinar. What is Swine Influenza?. Respiratory disease of pigs Influenza A viruses H1N1 * H1N2 H3N2 Isolated from a pig in 1930

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Pandemic h1n1 2009 influenza in pigs

Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza in Pigs

Renita W. Marshall, DVM, MS

Southern University System

Southern University Agricultural Research & Extension Center

EDEN Webinar

What is swine influenza
What is Swine Influenza?

  • Respiratory disease of pigs

  • Influenza A viruses

    • H1N1*

    • H1N2

    • H3N2

  • Isolated from a pig in 1930

  • Common in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa

What is swine influenza1
What is Swine Influenza?

  • From 1930 to the late 1990s these classical swine influenza viruses circulated in pigs in the US and remained relatively stable.

Classical swine flu
Classical Swine Flu

  • High levels of illness

  • Low death rates

  • Outbreaks during late fall and winter months

  • Morbidity rapidly reaches 100%

  • Mortality usually does not exceed 1%

  • Recovery usually after 5-7 days

Disease surveillance
Disease Surveillance

  • Disease surveillance is a tool for action

  • Many countries in the world do not have sufficient capacity in place

  • Many do not consider swine influenza virus infections as a high priority

Disease surveillance1
Disease Surveillance

  • There are currently no guidelines or set of defined strategies to address this disease

  • Industrial pig farms around the world apply vaccinations to control clinical disease

  • Although swine influenza is not a notifiable disease, all exceptional events related to Pandemic H1N1/2009 virus in swine should be reported

Disease surveillance2
Disease Surveillance

  • The adaptation of surveillance schemes is encouraged.

  • Surveillance should include the active participation of local communities and farmers to report active respiratory cases in pigs.

Recognizing the signs of flu in pigs
Recognizing the signs of flu in pigs

  • sudden onset of fever

  • lethargy, lack of alertness

  • going off feed (poor appetite)

  • coughing (barking)

  • discharge from the nose or eyes, eye redness or inflammation

  • sneezing

  • breathing difficulties

If swine influenza is identified
If swine influenza is identified…….

  • FAO recommends that animals be given supportive care and allowed to recover

  • Culling of affected swine is not recommended

  • Animal handlers should protect themselves from potential zoonotic agents

If swine influenza is identified1
If swine influenza is identified…….

  • Animal handlers should seek early medical attention if they become ill

    • Feverish

    • Respiratory or other symptoms

  • Pig workers with symptoms of flu should not work on pig farms

Serological testing
Serological Testing

  • Serology for H1N1 should not be used as the sole indicator of previous infection with the Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus

  • Current tests do not differentiate between H1N1 strains

  • Influenza viruses of H1N1 sub-type are common among pig populations

Serological testing1
Serological Testing

  • Vaccinations against swine influenza is based on inactivated H1N1 vaccines.

  • Serology may be useful where swine influenza vaccination is not practiced

  • Serology may be used in conjunction with other testing methods to confirm the presence of the virus

Virological assays
Virological Assays

  • Currently preferred over serology

  • Virus isolation techniques are the most sensitive and specific for detection of Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza viruses in pigs

  • As of July 2009 there was no standardized veterinary laboratory protocol available.

Molecular sequencing
Molecular Sequencing

  • Molecular sequencing of the HA gene is currently the most definitive confirmation of the Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus.

  • Consultation with an influenza reference laboratory is strongly recommended.

Criteria to establish a surveillance program
Criteria to establish a surveillance program

  • Surveillance for the Pandemic H1N1/2009 virus is aimed to answer one of three questions

    • Are swine the source of human exposure?

    • Can we demonstrate absence of the Pandemic H1N1/2009 virus in pigs?

    • Is the Pandemic H1N1/2009 virus being detected and collected from swine populations?

Case definition
Case Definition

  • A cluster of clinical cases in pigs showing fever or sneezing or coughing or nasal or ocular discharge in at least one individual observation unit, developed within a one-week period and affecting at least 10% of the animals present in the unit.

Are swine the possible sources of human cases of pandemic h1n1 2009 influenza virus
Are swine the possible sources of human cases of Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus?

  • Having consumed pork products is not to be considered as a risk factor for influenza but only contact with live animals.

  • A window period of exposure for the persons affected should be identified.

  • Occupational (daily contact with pigs) and non-occupational exposure such as visiting farms, petting zoos, and livestock shows should be considered.

Are swine the possible sources of human cases of pandemic h1n1 2009 influenza virus1
Are swine the possible sources of human cases of Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus?

  • Preliminary info may lead to identification of one or more pig farms where investigation is required.

  • Confirmation that pigs were the source of infection might be supported by virus comparison between pig and human viruses.

Can we demonstrate absence of the pandemic h1n1 2009 virus in pigs
Can we demonstrate absence of the Pandemic H1N1/2009 virus in pigs?

  • There are no official international requirements for, nor recognition of countries, zones, compartments or individual farms as free from classical swine viruses or from the Pandemic H1N1/2009 virus.

General surveillance strategy
General Surveillance Strategy in pigs?

  • Targets

    • Slaughterhouses

    • Abattoirs

    • Animal markets

  • Sampling criteria

    • Screening

    • No more than 20 animals (nasal swabs) unless clinically affected

Outbreak investigation protocols
Outbreak investigation protocols in pigs?

  • Laboratory sampling procedures

  • Developed and disseminated

    • Veterinary professionals

    • Animal health workers

Regular surveillance
Regular surveillance in pigs?

  • Should be intensified (porcine respiratory diseases)

  • Cases should be investigated by national veterinary authorities.

  • If Pandemic H1N1/2009 is suspected

    • Confirmation using molecular sequencing techniques

  • If Pandemic H1N1/2009 is confirmed

    • OIE and FAO should be informed

Movement restrictions
Movement restrictions in pigs?

  • Should be implemented by farms and holdings with confirmed cases of Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus

  • Should be in force until 1 week to 10 days after the last animal has recovered

  • Overcrowding

    • Slaughter (clinically healthy)

Movement restrictions1
Movement restrictions in pigs?

  • No need to cull affected animals

    • Separate from healthy herd-mates

    • Allowed to recover

  • In case of suspected outbreak, movement restrictions should be in place until a laboratory diagnosis is available.

Biosecurity and personal protection
Biosecurity and Personal Protection in pigs?

  • Animal handlers and veterinarians should wear protective gear

    • When entering barns or areas where sick pigs are present

    • Disposable coveralls or barn clothes

    • Shoes or boots that can be disinfected

    • Barn clothes should ideally be laundered at the barn

Biosecurity and personal protection1
Biosecurity and Personal Protection in pigs?

  • Minimize the risk of spreading pathogens between pigs and locations

    • Proper cleaning and disinfection

      • quaternary ammonium compounds

      • 10% bleach solutions

    • Workers should not be allowed to visit or work at other sites.

Biosecurity and personal protection2
Biosecurity and Personal Protection in pigs?

  • Persons working directly with swine should be urged not to go to work if they have any signs of respiratory disease, fever or any influenza-like illness

  • Biosecurity should be increased in pig herds to prevent transmission

    • Fomites

    • Mechanical vectors

    • vehicles

Vaccination for swine influenza
Vaccination for Swine Influenza in pigs?

  • A vaccine could be used in swine

    • High risk areas

    • Considered effective against the circulation strain

    • Permitted by the relevant authorities

Closing………………. in pigs?

  • Classical swine influenza is prevalent in pigs worldwide.

  • H1N1 and H3N2 swine viruses are endemic among pig populations in the US and something that the industry deals with routinely.

  • In the U.S., studies have shown that 30 percent of the pig population has antibody evidence of having had H1N1 infection.

  • More specifically, 51 percent of pigs in the north-central U.S. have been shown to have antibody evidence of infection with swine H1N1.

Closing………………. in pigs?

  • As of June 26, 2009, the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has not been found in any pigs within the United States, but has been detected in pigs on a farm in Alberta, Canada.

  • Information sharing between countries of the results of surveillance activities for classical swine influenza, the emergent Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, and other novel viruses would improve the overall understanding of influenza dynamics and the different types of pig production systems where they circulate.

Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu), Center for Disease Control