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Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support 16th March 2010 . (2.00 to 4.00 pm). Sources.

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Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support16th March 2010.(2.00 to 4.00 pm)


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Sources who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Kendall, S. and Kinder, K. (2005). Reclaiming Those Disengaged from Education and Learning: a European Perspective. Slough: NFER. (Austria, England, Belgium Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and Wales).

  • Enhancing career development: The role of community-based career guidance for disengaged adults (2005) National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER).

  • Helena Kasurinen and Mika Launikari (2009) Career Guidance for Youth-at-risk in Finland

  • It’s Crunch Time: Raising youth engagement and attainment (2007)

    Australian Industry Group.


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Dimensions of disengagement who are at risk of disengaging:

Not in:

  • education

  • employment

  • training

NEET


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Manifestations of disengagement who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Flight: Absent and disconnected:

    - irregular, truancy, dropout

  • Fight: Present, but absent

    - disruptive, destructive,

    - behavioural problems


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Why disengagement? who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Impact of educational structure:Comprehensive vs. selective; higher incidence of diengagement in ‘selective’ systems

    2. Effect of inclusion and exclusion:

    segregation may exacerbate disengagement.

    3.Lack of congurence with‘prescribed’ modes of career development:

    boredom, distraction, disconnect from existing attitudes to work, unchallenged.


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Why disengagement? who are at risk of disengaging:

4. Socio-economic and community factors

  • Home background and area of residence were seen as being key influences on disengagement.

  • For example, in the UK socio-economic status was seen as being a stronger predictor of achievement than early attainment.

  • In five of the countries, minority ethnic groups were noted as being over-represented in the disengaged group – this was evident in the Netherlands, Austria, Norway, Spain and England.


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Why disengagement? who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Family environment

  • parents do not value school.

  • condone non-attendance.

  • have low or too high expectations.

  • family events: such as bereavement, divorce, or new stepfamily, can also have an impact.


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Why disengagement? who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Pupil factors

  • Lack of social skills.

  • Not attending school, for example, due to bullying.

  • Friends beyond school resulting in non-attendance and disengagement.

  • Lack of academic ability.

  • Having special educational needs.

  • Substance misuse.

  • Previous negative experiences of school.

  • Students who have to repeat a school year or those who have to change from a higher to lower level of education.


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Why disengagement? who are at risk of disengaging:

7. Curriculum factors

  • The perceived irrelevance of the curriculum to life.

  • Inappropriate exam and assessment procedures.

  • Reduced time for ‘pastoral’ provision because of the pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum.

  • Inappropriate teaching methods with schools focusing on curriculum and subject content rather than on learners.


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Why disengagement? who are at risk of disengaging:

8. Influence of vocational education:

  • Vocational qualifications do not have parity of esteem with academic qualifications.

  • There is a danger of seeing vocational education as the ‘solution’ to disengagement.

  • Greater focus is required on person-centered approaches to career development rather than providing a vocational ‘alternative’.


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“Established models, who are at risk of disengaging:

associated with outcome-driven thinking...

based on linear development through

education to a lifetime career,

may be useful for some

but are unlikely to engage all young people.”

Reid, 2008.


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The accumulation of disadvantage who are at risk of disengaging:


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Human Development Reports who are at risk of disengaging:

The Less Visible Factors

  • Cognitive Development.

  • Education and Literacy (drop outs, completion rates).

  • Employability (preparation to enter the world of work).

    Specific social, cultural and psychological variables seem to predict differences between the child in poverty and the more advantaged.

`

Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2001)


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Accumulation of disadvantage who are at risk of disengaging:

  • It seems possible to locate points of vulnerability along the spectrum of human development.

  • The experience of disadvantage seems to have a cumulative impact on development culminating in the internalization of psychological barriers.

Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2001)


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Accumulation of disadvantage who are at risk of disengaging:

Early Childhood

Middle Childhood

Adolescence

Lower access to stimulation material.

Lower school enrollment and irregular attendance.

Lower Self-esteem.

Typical motivational patterns (e.g. lower emphasis on personal effort; higher dependence on others).

Lower exposure to speech and language stimulation.

Lower academic performance.

Short term orientation to future; lower ability to symbolically represent future outcomes.

Poor literacy acquisition.

Lower range of significant others who can stimulate child.

Parental attitudes closely related to school drop-out.

Lower scores on planning and goal setting.

Stronger orientation to earning than training.


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The Jiva Project: who are at risk of disengaging: Capacity building for career counselling and livelihood planning.India


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Extract from: who are at risk of disengaging:

Work Orientations and Responses to Career Choices: An Indian Regional Survey (WORCC-IRS) (2006)

  • A survey undertaken by The Promise Foundation that covered 13 different regions of India.

  • Close 10000 participants

  • 8 languages


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Influences on Career Choice who are at risk of disengaging:


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Subject / Career Options who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Science

  • Commerce

  • Humanities

  • Vocational Subjects

?


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Parent’s Desire who are at risk of disengaging:


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Occupational Prestige who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Social and cultural forces grade occupations on a hierarchy of prestige.

  • The respectability attributed to an occupation plays a powerful role in shaping interest directed toward that occupation.

  • Children begin to recognise prestige linked differences among jobs and thereby learn to include or eliminate occupational alternatives.


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Occupational Prestige Hierarchy who are at risk of disengaging:

  • The impact of prestige on career preferences has been documented in both the Indian and the international literature.

  • Prestige ratings of 28 occupations with corresponding indications of Interest, Self Confidence and Parent Approval.


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Occupations receiving the who are at risk of disengaging: lowest prestige ratings are those belonging to the blue collar and vocational category.


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Socio Economic Status who are at risk of disengaging: and Subject Preferences


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Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): who are at risk of disengaging: Key Concepts

  • Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory.

  • SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio-economic influences, to shape life paths.


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Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): who are at risk of disengaging: Key Concepts

  • Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory.

  • SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio-economic influences, to shape life paths.


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Self Efficacy who are at risk of disengaging:

Three

Social

Cognitive

Mechanisms

Outcome Expectations

Goal

Setting

...are particularly relevant to

understanding career development


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

2. Outcome Expectations

1. Self Efficacy Beliefs

3. Goal Setting

Imagined outcome

Future orientation

Performance Accomplishments

Symbolically represent future outcomes

Vicarious Experience

Projected anticipation

Verbal Persuasion


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

Self-efficacy Beliefs:

  • Beliefs about one’s ability to be successful in the performance of a task

  • Self-referent thought influences behaviour

  • Quality of self efficacy beliefs influence whether:

    - behaviour will be initiated

    - how much energy will be expended

    - maintenance of this behaviour in the face of

    obstacles


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Influences on self efficacy beliefs who are at risk of disengaging:

Performance Accomplishments (Success Experiences)

  • Actual performance on a task.

  • Accomplishments that are success experiences move the individual closer to mastery experiences.

  • A success experience contributes to self-efficacy only when the individual is able to attribute the reason for success to personal effort.

“I got one right... Now let me try the next.”


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Influences on self efficacy beliefs who are at risk of disengaging:

Vicarious Experience

  • Observation of a social role model

  • Promotes a similar belief in oneself and influences personal self-efficacy for that task

  • The more similar to oneself the more powerful is the vicarious experience

  • The greater the real or assumed similarity of the model to the observer, the powerful is the model’s success or failure on the observer’s self-efficacy

  • The failure of important role models causes a decline in self-efficacy for that task

“If she can do it... Maybe I can too.”


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Influences on self efficacy beliefs who are at risk of disengaging:

Verbal Persuasion

  • Encouragement from someone else that they possess the capabilities to be successful at a particular task

  • Repeated verbal feedback that questions a person’s capabilities could lead to:

    - Avoidance of that activity

    - Giving up in the face of barriers

    - Weak engagement with the task

  • Undermines motivation and promotes disbelief in one's capabilities

“She told me I can do it... She believes in me.”


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

I tried and it worked!

Performance Accomplishments

If she can do it let me try...!

Vicarious Experience

to affect the quality of

Self Efficacy beliefs

interact reciprocally

She told me I can do it...!

Verbal Persuasion


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

2. Outcome Expectations

1. Self Efficacy Beliefs

3. Goal Setting

Imagined outcome

Future orientation

Performance Accomplishments

Symbolically represent future outcomes

Vicarious Experience

Projected anticipation

Verbal Persuasion


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

Outcome Expectations

  • Expectation that a certain consequence would result from a certain action

  • Estimation of the quality of the outcome

  • Are only imagined and notional outcomes

  • Particularly relevant in an environment where the linkage between effort and outcome are imperfect

  • A person may not invest effort in an activity for which she has a high potential, if the outcome expectation for that activity is negative


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Outcome Expectations: who are at risk of disengaging: Implications for career development

  • If outcome expected does not match projected anticipation or imagined outcome, may not engage with the process.

  • If a service or a scheme is not congruent with what the person thinks he/she deserves, may not value the scheme

  • Examples:

    - going against the common belief

    - scepticism

    - loss of support from others if that action is taken

    - loss of prestige

    - gender incongruence


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

2. Outcome Expectations

1. Self Efficacy Beliefs

3. Goal Setting

Imagined outcome

Future orientation

Performance Accomplishments

Symbolically represent future outcomes

Vicarious Experience

Projected anticipation

Verbal Persuasion


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Social Cognitive Theory who are at risk of disengaging:

Goal Setting

  • Capacity to symbolically represent and conceptualise future effects of present actions.

  • Engagement in an activity that has an effect in the future

  • Determination to reach a target

  • Requires:

    - ability to react in a self-evaluative manner to own behaviour

    - internal standards of performance

  • Goals call for sustained action over a period of time


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Social Cognitive Theory: Impact and Relevance who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Merely believing does actually record success

  • Expectation alone will not produce the desired outcome

  • Must be mindful of the individual’s ability levels


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Tackling disengagement who are at risk of disengaging:

Curative

Preventative

  • strengthen transition stages.

  • bridge gap between vocational

  • and academic education.

  • promote self-efficacy.

  • strenghten self-mediation.

  • realistic goal setting.

  • promote future orienation.

  • focused on routes.

  • back into learning.

  • enabling appropriate

  • targeting of resources

  • evaluation of initiatives.


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Case Study 1: who are at risk of disengaging: Employment Skills Training Project

Analysis of the Maldivian social cognitive environment

revealed consistent patterns of commonality and specificity

along career beliefs.


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Development of a programme who are at risk of disengaging:

Searched within social cognitive environment for thought

habits and patterns:

  • High emphasis on acquiring college education

  • It is the government's responsibility.

  • My father will do it for me.

  • It’s too hard for me.

  • I would rather be unemployed.

  • Negation of personal responsibility

  • Giving up in the face of barriers

Saying NO rather than YESto personal engagement

with work and career development


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The social marketing campaign who are at risk of disengaging: Slogan

Youth Employment Services

YES!

YES! BECAUSE I CAN

“Yes” Career Counselling Programme


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The social marketing campaign who are at risk of disengaging: Logo and Slogan


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Universalist principles interpreted who are at risk of disengaging:

into a specific cultural context


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Harnessing diversity who are at risk of disengaging: Some evidence(Arulmani, G & Agisa Abdulla 2007)*

Glassian Effect Sizes indicating the impact of career guidance on

career beliefs

* Capturing the ripples: Addressing the sustainability of the impact of social marketing. Social Marketing Quarterly

Blended commonalities with specificities

Acultural approach


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Case Study 2: who are at risk of disengaging: The Promise Foundation, India:Career guidance and livelihood planning project

Analysis of social cognitive environment revealed the

following key social cognitions pertaining to work:

- Work is an integral part of life

- Work is an extension of life

- Work is related to life stages

Jiva

“Life” in most Indian languages


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The Jiva Framework who are at risk of disengaging:

The Jiva ‘spiral’!

The Jiva Career Spiral

  • Mental ‘tick’ marks!

  • The Jiva Tick mark

Green and blue!

Green and Blue!

The changing and the unchanged.

Changing and unchanged


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Principle 1: The Jiva Spiral: who are at risk of disengaging: A non linear approach to career development

Cultural Value:

The circularity of life

  • Career and livelihood development occur in a spiral!

  • Over time one returns to where one started, but in qualitatively different manner.


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Principle 2: The Jiva Tick Mark who are at risk of disengaging: Assess before you accept

Cultural Value:

Nishkama: Dispassionate decision making

  • Weigh up pros

    and cons and then

    accept or reject.

  • How relevant is an

    opportunity to one's

    interests and aptitudes?

  • Is an opportunity merely a job offering or is it an opening into a real career?


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Principle 3: Green and blue who are at risk of disengaging: A healthy career cares for the ‘other’

  • “When you set the sky as the limit are you also turning the earth brown?”

Cultural Value:

Sensitivity to the ‘other’


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Principle 4: The Changing and the Unchanged who are at risk of disengaging: A healthy career allows change with stability

Cultural Value:

Paradox of change and constancy

  • The individual is growing; the world of work is also changing.

  • A career develops in finding the balance between what changes and what does not change.

  • Personal interests for example, are liable to change while aptitudes are deeper traits.

  • Healthy careers and livelihoods are in tune with a dynamic and moving world and at the same time grounded in values that are

    constant.


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Principle 5: Give, in order to get who are at risk of disengaging: Skills for life long development

Cultural Value:

Ashramas:Life stages have life responsibilities

  • A career lies in the interface between garnering of personal gain and services rendered to society.

  • Career development suffers or even grinds to a halt when the dynamic tension between this ‘giving’ and ‘receiving’ is disturbed.


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Theory to Practice who are at risk of disengaging:

  • Group 1: Performance accomplishment and career

    development

  • Group 2: Vicarious experience and career development

  • Group 3: Verbal persuasion and career development

  • Group 4: Outcome expectations and career development

  • Group 5: Goal setting and career development

    30 minutes for small group discussions

    30 minutes for short presentation.


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Discussion Point: who are at risk of disengaging:

Group 1: Are there any weak links in the transition stages.

Group 2: Any comment: Greater focus is required on person-

centered approaches to career transitions rather than

providing a vocational ‘alternative’.

Group 3:Reduced time for ‘pastoral’ provision because of the

pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum.

Group 4: Is it necessary to review content of training programmes

for careers counsellors for skills transfer pertaining to

multicultural competencies:

- Culture sensitive counselling.

- Promotion of self-efficacy.

- Skills to work with parents / community.

HOW could this achieved?


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Outcomes of a study on the promotion who are at risk of disengaging:

of self-efficacy for career development

Almost eight months after Time 3 of this study, a young man visited the

researcher. Full of confidence he walked into the researcher’s office

and said that he had attended a six month course on screen printing

and now had a regular job.

Then, rather shyly he said had something to give the researcher. He

drew a soiled envelope from his pocket and said “I received my first

salary today. I want you to use this to help someone else in the way

you helped me.” Inside the envelope was a fifty rupee note. A large

sum of money for a boy from his background.

Moved, but curious I asked him which of the intervention groups he had

belonged to. The boy looked up and said, “The group where we learned to

think differently.”


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