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Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support 1 PowerPoint Presentation
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Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support 1

Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support 1

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Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support 1

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  1. Career development for young people who have disengaged or who are at risk of disengaging: Policy and system support16th March 2010.(2.00 to 4.00 pm)

  2. Sources • Kendall, S. and Kinder, K. (2005). Reclaiming Those Disengaged from Education and Learning: a European Perspective. Slough: NFER. (Austria, England, Belgium Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and Wales). • Enhancing career development: The role of community-based career guidance for disengaged adults (2005) National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). • Helena Kasurinen and Mika Launikari (2009) Career Guidance for Youth-at-risk in Finland • It’s Crunch Time: Raising youth engagement and attainment (2007) Australian Industry Group.

  3. Dimensions of disengagement Not in: • education • employment • training NEET

  4. Manifestations of disengagement • Flight: Absent and disconnected: - irregular, truancy, dropout • Fight: Present, but absent - disruptive, destructive, - behavioural problems

  5. Why disengagement? • Impact of educational structure:Comprehensive vs. selective; higher incidence of diengagement in ‘selective’ systems 2. Effect of inclusion and exclusion: segregation may exacerbate disengagement. 3.Lack of congurence with‘prescribed’ modes of career development: boredom, distraction, disconnect from existing attitudes to work, unchallenged.

  6. Why disengagement? 4. Socio-economic and community factors • Home background and area of residence were seen as being key influences on disengagement. • For example, in the UK socio-economic status was seen as being a stronger predictor of achievement than early attainment. • In five of the countries, minority ethnic groups were noted as being over-represented in the disengaged group – this was evident in the Netherlands, Austria, Norway, Spain and England.

  7. Why disengagement? • Family environment • parents do not value school. • condone non-attendance. • have low or too high expectations. • family events: such as bereavement, divorce, or new stepfamily, can also have an impact.

  8. Why disengagement? • Pupil factors • Lack of social skills. • Not attending school, for example, due to bullying. • Friends beyond school resulting in non-attendance and disengagement. • Lack of academic ability. • Having special educational needs. • Substance misuse. • Previous negative experiences of school. • Students who have to repeat a school year or those who have to change from a higher to lower level of education.

  9. Why disengagement? 7. Curriculum factors • The perceived irrelevance of the curriculum to life. • Inappropriate exam and assessment procedures. • Reduced time for ‘pastoral’ provision because of the pressure to cover the prescribed curriculum. • Inappropriate teaching methods with schools focusing on curriculum and subject content rather than on learners.

  10. Why disengagement? 8. Influence of vocational education: • Vocational qualifications do not have parity of esteem with academic qualifications. • There is a danger of seeing vocational education as the ‘solution’ to disengagement. • Greater focus is required on person-centered approaches to career development rather than providing a vocational ‘alternative’.

  11. “Established models, associated with outcome-driven thinking... based on linear development through education to a lifetime career, may be useful for some but are unlikely to engage all young people.” Reid, 2008.

  12. The accumulation of disadvantage

  13. Human Development Reports The Less Visible Factors • Cognitive Development. • Education and Literacy (drop outs, completion rates). • Employability (preparation to enter the world of work). Specific social, cultural and psychological variables seem to predict differences between the child in poverty and the more advantaged. ` Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2001)

  14. Accumulation of disadvantage • It seems possible to locate points of vulnerability along the spectrum of human development. • The experience of disadvantage seems to have a cumulative impact on development culminating in the internalization of psychological barriers. Arulmani, G. & Nag-Arulmani, S. (2001)

  15. Accumulation of disadvantage Early Childhood Middle Childhood Adolescence Lower access to stimulation material. Lower school enrollment and irregular attendance. Lower Self-esteem. Typical motivational patterns (e.g. lower emphasis on personal effort; higher dependence on others). Lower exposure to speech and language stimulation. Lower academic performance. Short term orientation to future; lower ability to symbolically represent future outcomes. Poor literacy acquisition. Lower range of significant others who can stimulate child. Parental attitudes closely related to school drop-out. Lower scores on planning and goal setting. Stronger orientation to earning than training.

  16. The Jiva Project:Capacity building for career counselling and livelihood planning.India

  17. Extract from: Work Orientations and Responses to Career Choices: An Indian Regional Survey (WORCC-IRS) (2006) • A survey undertaken by The Promise Foundation that covered 13 different regions of India. • Close 10000 participants • 8 languages

  18. Influences on Career Choice

  19. Subject / Career Options • Science • Commerce • Humanities • Vocational Subjects ?

  20. Parent’s Desire

  21. Occupational Prestige • Social and cultural forces grade occupations on a hierarchy of prestige. • The respectability attributed to an occupation plays a powerful role in shaping interest directed toward that occupation. • Children begin to recognise prestige linked differences among jobs and thereby learn to include or eliminate occupational alternatives.

  22. Occupational Prestige Hierarchy • The impact of prestige on career preferences has been documented in both the Indian and the international literature. • Prestige ratings of 28 occupations with corresponding indications of Interest, Self Confidence and Parent Approval.

  23. Occupations receiving the lowest prestige ratings are those belonging to the blue collar and vocational category.

  24. Socio Economic Status and Subject Preferences

  25. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): Key Concepts • Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory. • SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio-economic influences, to shape life paths.

  26. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT): Key Concepts • Formulated by Albert Bandura in the 1980s as a refinement of his Social Learning Theory. • SCT analyses the diverse ways in which beliefs of personal efficacy operate within a network of socio-cultural and socio-economic influences, to shape life paths.

  27. Self Efficacy Three Social Cognitive Mechanisms Outcome Expectations Goal Setting ...are particularly relevant to understanding career development

  28. Social Cognitive Theory 2. Outcome Expectations 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 3. Goal Setting Imagined outcome Future orientation Performance Accomplishments Symbolically represent future outcomes Vicarious Experience Projected anticipation Verbal Persuasion

  29. Social Cognitive Theory Self-efficacy Beliefs: • Beliefs about one’s ability to be successful in the performance of a task • Self-referent thought influences behaviour • Quality of self efficacy beliefs influence whether: - behaviour will be initiated - how much energy will be expended - maintenance of this behaviour in the face of obstacles

  30. Influences on self efficacy beliefs Performance Accomplishments (Success Experiences) • Actual performance on a task. • Accomplishments that are success experiences move the individual closer to mastery experiences. • A success experience contributes to self-efficacy only when the individual is able to attribute the reason for success to personal effort. “I got one right... Now let me try the next.”

  31. Influences on self efficacy beliefs Vicarious Experience • Observation of a social role model • Promotes a similar belief in oneself and influences personal self-efficacy for that task • The more similar to oneself the more powerful is the vicarious experience • The greater the real or assumed similarity of the model to the observer, the powerful is the model’s success or failure on the observer’s self-efficacy • The failure of important role models causes a decline in self-efficacy for that task “If she can do it... Maybe I can too.”

  32. Influences on self efficacy beliefs Verbal Persuasion • Encouragement from someone else that they possess the capabilities to be successful at a particular task • Repeated verbal feedback that questions a person’s capabilities could lead to: - Avoidance of that activity - Giving up in the face of barriers - Weak engagement with the task • Undermines motivation and promotes disbelief in one's capabilities “She told me I can do it... She believes in me.”

  33. Social Cognitive Theory I tried and it worked! Performance Accomplishments If she can do it let me try...! Vicarious Experience to affect the quality of Self Efficacy beliefs interact reciprocally She told me I can do it...! Verbal Persuasion

  34. Social Cognitive Theory 2. Outcome Expectations 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 3. Goal Setting Imagined outcome Future orientation Performance Accomplishments Symbolically represent future outcomes Vicarious Experience Projected anticipation Verbal Persuasion

  35. Social Cognitive Theory Outcome Expectations • Expectation that a certain consequence would result from a certain action • Estimation of the quality of the outcome • Are only imagined and notional outcomes • Particularly relevant in an environment where the linkage between effort and outcome are imperfect • A person may not invest effort in an activity for which she has a high potential, if the outcome expectation for that activity is negative

  36. Outcome Expectations: Implications for career development • If outcome expected does not match projected anticipation or imagined outcome, may not engage with the process. • If a service or a scheme is not congruent with what the person thinks he/she deserves, may not value the scheme • Examples: - going against the common belief - scepticism - loss of support from others if that action is taken - loss of prestige - gender incongruence

  37. Social Cognitive Theory 2. Outcome Expectations 1. Self Efficacy Beliefs 3. Goal Setting Imagined outcome Future orientation Performance Accomplishments Symbolically represent future outcomes Vicarious Experience Projected anticipation Verbal Persuasion

  38. Social Cognitive Theory Goal Setting • Capacity to symbolically represent and conceptualise future effects of present actions. • Engagement in an activity that has an effect in the future • Determination to reach a target • Requires: - ability to react in a self-evaluative manner to own behaviour - internal standards of performance • Goals call for sustained action over a period of time

  39. Social Cognitive Theory: Impact and Relevance • Merely believing does actually record success • Expectation alone will not produce the desired outcome • Must be mindful of the individual’s ability levels

  40. Tackling disengagement Curative Preventative • strengthen transition stages. • bridge gap between vocational • and academic education. • promote self-efficacy. • strenghten self-mediation. • realistic goal setting. • promote future orienation. • focused on routes. • back into learning. • enabling appropriate • targeting of resources • evaluation of initiatives.

  41. Case Study 1:Employment Skills Training Project Analysis of the Maldivian social cognitive environment revealed consistent patterns of commonality and specificity along career beliefs.

  42. Development of a programme Searched within social cognitive environment for thought habits and patterns: • High emphasis on acquiring college education • It is the government's responsibility. • My father will do it for me. • It’s too hard for me. • I would rather be unemployed. • Negation of personal responsibility • Giving up in the face of barriers Saying NO rather than YESto personal engagement with work and career development

  43. The social marketing campaignSlogan Youth Employment Services YES! YES! BECAUSE I CAN “Yes” Career Counselling Programme

  44. The social marketing campaignLogo and Slogan

  45. Universalist principles interpreted into a specific cultural context

  46. Harnessing diversitySome evidence(Arulmani, G & Agisa Abdulla 2007)* Glassian Effect Sizes indicating the impact of career guidance on career beliefs * Capturing the ripples: Addressing the sustainability of the impact of social marketing. Social Marketing Quarterly Blended commonalities with specificities Acultural approach

  47. Case Study 2:The Promise Foundation, India:Career guidance and livelihood planning project Analysis of social cognitive environment revealed the following key social cognitions pertaining to work: - Work is an integral part of life - Work is an extension of life - Work is related to life stages Jiva “Life” in most Indian languages

  48. The Jiva Framework The Jiva ‘spiral’! The Jiva Career Spiral • Mental ‘tick’ marks! • The Jiva Tick mark Green and blue! Green and Blue! The changing and the unchanged. Changing and unchanged

  49. Principle 1: The Jiva Spiral: A non linear approach to career development Cultural Value: The circularity of life • Career and livelihood development occur in a spiral! • Over time one returns to where one started, but in qualitatively different manner.

  50. Principle 2: The Jiva Tick MarkAssess before you accept Cultural Value: Nishkama: Dispassionate decision making • Weigh up pros and cons and then accept or reject. • How relevant is an opportunity to one's interests and aptitudes? • Is an opportunity merely a job offering or is it an opening into a real career?