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Energy Conclave - 2006. Frontiers in Technologies and Modernization. Dr.R.R.Sonde Executive Director (Energy Technologies) NTPC Ltd. N.Delhi 28 th July’ 2006. Frontier in Technologies & Modernization. Electricity, the future form of energy.

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slide1

Energy Conclave - 2006

Frontiers in Technologies and Modernization

Dr.R.R.Sonde

Executive Director (Energy Technologies)

NTPC Ltd

N.Delhi

28th July’ 2006

slide2

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

Electricity, the future form of energy

  • Electricity is going to be the main stay of Energy
  • Transport sector could see a major change from natural liquid hydrocarbon to either Electricity, Hydrogen or Synthetic Liquid Fuel
  • Rural prosperity would see a major shift from the usage of non-commercial energy to electricity

Coal / Biomass and water would be physical form of fuel outside ‘fusion’

Solar is going to be the riding source of “energy”

slide3

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

However, for this to happen, electricity has to be affordable, available and clean

  • Cheap Power :High Efficiency (from mine to delivery)
  • Abundant Power :Plentiful so that it powers the country’s growth
  • Clean Power :Environmentally Benign

Efficiency

Penalty for CCS (Carbon Capture & Seq) would be 10% points over and above the indicated efficiency figures

All the available technologies are based of ‘Rankine Cycle’

It essentially uses ‘Condenser’ which limits the cycle efficiency to ~ 50%

We need to develop a ‘cycle’ which is fundamentally different.

slide4

Coal Reserve 250 billion tons

  • Gas Reserve 553 bcm
  • Petroleum Reserve 5.4 billion barrels

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

Abundant Power

The country has plentiful energy sources marked coal superabundance and weak hydrocarbons…

Coal remains the most important fuel for power industry

Coal is likely to become the source of Synthetic Fuel & Electricity required for Transp. Sector

Coal is expected to become the fulcrum of ‘Hydrogen Economy’

Development of ‘Alternate Power Cycle’ has to be based on Coal being supplemented

by bio mass, water and solar

slide5

Very High Ash Content: 40% - 50%

  • High Alfa Quartz Content
  • High Abrasive Index
  • Low Heating Value: 2500–3500 Kcal/Kg

Hot Climate:

  • Low Condenser Vacuum & Boiler Eff
  • No requirement of District Heating

Coal

Abundant Power

Cheap Power

Tech

nology

Climate

Clean Power

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

Clean Power

Producing clean power with coal, even today, is a challenge

The Challenge

Fuel extraction

island

Combustion Island

[Boiler]

Power

Island

[Turbine]

Transmission

Distribution

[80%]

=65%

=85%-90%

=95%

=85-90%

Overall <22%!!!

I suggest two frontier technologies this country can take up in MISSION mode. They are

slide6

Absorber

Syn. Gas

Syn. Liquid Hydrocarbon

Coal

Ammonia / Urea / Chemical

Bio mass

Hydrogen

Electricity

Unconverted Fuel Separator

Steam

Fuel Cell

Gasifier

Hot Gas Cleanup

Gasification Island

Cooling

Zeolite

Combustion Island

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

The Solution : The frontier technology - 1, India centric

Migrate from ‘Rankine’ based power to a fundamentally new one (Hybridise Rankine at back end using ammonia cycle)

Char comb. island

Chemical

Energy

[Coal]

Gasification Island

[Gasifier]

Electrical

Energy

[Fuel Cell]

Cycle Efficiency

[65% - 80%]

~95%

~80%

Bubbling bed

MALAE Cycle, Low gr. Q

CO2CCS

slide7

Frontier Technology & Modernization

The Traditional Power Generation cycle

Thermal

Energy

in Boiler

Mechanical

Energy in

Turbine

14000C

5200C

Chemical

Energy

in Coal

Electrical

Energy

in Generator

Fuel cell

(Gibbs FE)

Governed by 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Input Energy = 100

Output energy =33

Carnot Engine

(Energy)

How to Increase the Efficiency of this system ?

slide8

Frontier Technology & Modernization

Why fuel cells?

  • Almost all conventional technologies use combustion and Carnot cycle
  • In this, the maximum theoretically achievable efficiency depends on heat source and sink temperature
  • Though higher efficiency up to 83.7 % is possible, actual achievable efficiency is limited by non-availability of suitable materials for such high temperature

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a reaction directly into electrical energy.

slide9

Chemical

Energy

[Coal]

Gasification Island

[Boiler]

Electrical

Energy

[Fuel Cell]

  • Water
  • Bio Mass

Artificial Photo Synthesis

  • Hydrogen
  • Methanol
  • Syn Gas
  • Electricity

Water / CO2

Methanol

Electricity

Hydrogen

Solar Photon

Bacteria

Alt. Fuel

Bio Mass

Syn Gas

Fuel

Products

Use

Artificial Photosynthesis

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

Frontier technology-2, Solar To Fuel And Electricity

Interfacing biology with physical sciences at nano-scale will be what ultimately will provide an abundant and perpetual source of fuel and power – perhaps at par with fusion. Fusion mimics solar while this would mimic nature (photo synthesis)

slide10

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

What is different than already known?

  • Low temperature water (& CO2) splitting – to produce hydrogen or methanol
  • Low temperature conversion of cellulose (bio mass) into synthesis gas – Substitute for high temperature gasification process

Elements in Solar to Fuel & Electricity

Powered by sunlight, nano scale inorganic materials embedded in organic base convert water, CO2 to hydrogen, methanol

Polymers made from customised dendmimrimers mimic photosynthesis

Using technique of synthetic biology, yeast can manufacture fuels from bio mass

slide11

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

Way forward:

  • I suggest following
  • Set up a 25 Mw (equivalent) FT-1 Mission. About six top institutions and two R&D savvy industry. Government to mentor the mission
  • Set up National Mission on Solar to Fuel Mission (FT-2). Would require interface with Nano, Synthetic biology and electrochemistry as backbone. Engg. Science to be introduced later

At a later stage FT-2 will be dovetailed with FT-1

Time frame, Budget, Institutional mechanisms ???

slide12

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

While I have suggested two frontier technologies, the existing technologies seek intervention of good number of technological solutions. Today we have adequate tools (scientific), knowledge, operating experience to develop the intervention technologies.

May I suggest we take up one more new development of solar through heliostats? What is this 

slide14

Salt Cycle

hot

storage

cold

storage

steam

generator

290 °C

565 °C

output to turbine

input from

condenser

Frontier in Technologies & Modernization

  • Solar Tower
  • A field of flat mirrors concentrate light on central receivers
  • As flat mirrors can have two-axis solar tracking, high collection efficiency (>80%)
  • An HTF (molten salts) is heated up (550 Deg C)
  • Generate steam in a heat exchanger (535 Deg C)
  • Run a steam cycle – Overall efficiency : about 24%

Cont. supply

slide15

CONCLUSION

“When you really want something to happen, the whole universe conspires to help you to achieve your dreams”

……..The Alchemist

by Paulo Coelho

Thank

You

slide16

V

e-

2H+ + 0.5O2

H2O + 2 h+

2H+ + 2e-

H2

R

H-

Cathode

Photoanode

hv

Na2SO4

Photo-Electrochemical Hydrogen

  • Combine Electrolysis an PV technology into a one step process
  • Problems: Chemical photo-corrosion and high cost
photochemical hydrogen
Reactions occur at individual molecules suspended the solution

A Photo-Synthesizer works in conjunction with a relay compound to transfer energy and generate hydrogen

S+

H2O

H2

Oxidation

Catalyst

Reduction

Catalyst

0.5 O2

Sun

hv

2H+

S

2H+

Photochemical Hydrogen