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MAMMAL NOTES. There are 4600 species of mammals known and 300 of these are considered endangered, mainly due to habitat destruction. General characteristics : 1. Mammals are endothermic ( mostly homeothermic )

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There are 4600 species of mammals known and 300 of these are considered endangered, mainly due to habitat destruction.

General characteristics:

1. Mammals are endothermic ( mostly homeothermic)

2. Have hair or fur, if the coat of hair is thick, it is called pelage and species with

sparse hair usually have very

thick skin or a layer of blubber

to insulate against

temperature extremes.

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3. Nourish their young with milk secreted by the female’s nipples.

4. All mammals are dioecious with

internal fertilization.

All mammals are heterogametic

which means that the sex of the

offspring is determined by the male.

Most mammalian embryos are

are nourished by a placenta.

5. All mammals breathe with lungs.

6. Have a four-chambered heart and a closed circulatory system.

slide4

7. Most are terrestrial but a few are marine and one Order has developed true flight.

8. Mammals have the most

advanced nervous system of any group.

  • All mammals have a lower jaw formed of a mandible called the dentarywhich articulates with the upper jaw called the squamate and an upper palate which allows young to breathe while nursing.

10. All mammals have excellent hearing

and external ears called pinnae.

living representative mammals
Living Representative Mammals

There are 21 orders of Mammals classified into two subclasses

1. Subclass Prototheria (egg-laying mammals)

ex. Duck-billed Platypus, echidna ( one order)

2. Subclass Theria-( Placental mammals)

a. infraclass Metatheria-marsupials

(one order)

ex. Kangaroo

b. infraclass Eutheria- true placental

mammals ( 19 orders)

major adaptations of mammals
MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS
  • Internal temperature regulation is the most important adaptation in mammals!

A. Most mammals are both

endothermic and homeothermic.

B. Internal body heat results from camel is example of non- homeothermic animal

cellular metabolism.

1. a typical resting mammal has a metabolic rate 10 X higher than a reptile

2. Mammals eat more calories and process them more efficiently than reptiles in order to maintain a higher body heat.

3. the smaller the mammal, the greater its body size to surface ratio and the more it must eat to maintain life

ex. A 3 g. mouse eats 5X more than a 10Kg. Dog and 30X more than a 50,000 Kg. elephant.

*per gram of body weight

major adaptations of mammals con t
MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t

II. Sources of heating the body of a mammal

A. Shivering

B. brown fat

C. changing the pelage with the seasons

D. Arrectorpilli muscles to erect hairs and trap

warm air.

E. Insulating blubber accounts for 45% of body weight of seals and whales

III. Sources of cooling the body in mammals.

A. Panting

B. sweating

C. remaining inactive during the hottest part of

the day

D. spreading out and exposing skin where hair is

IV. Additional forms of temperature adaptation

A. hibernation- winter dormancy

B. aestivation-summer dormancy sparse

major adaptations of mammals con t1
MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t

V. Mammalian integument ( outer covering of skin)

1. Skin Glands produce various pheromones

2. hair is formed of fine scales of the protein keratin.

a. Various types of mammalian hairs include: soft

undercoats, guard hairs, bristles and quills. Hair of

sheep and humans grow continuously, also the

manes and tails of horses, most other mammal hair

growth is determinate.

b. Molts are periodic sheds of hair in most mammals. Fox and

seals shed once a year in summer, most mammals shed twice a

year, in spring and fall. Some mammals change

color with the seasons, the white winter coat

of Artic mammals is called leukenism.

c. Whiskers or Vibrissae are sensory hairs,

they provide a tactile extra sense.

major adaptations of mammals con t2
MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t

V. Mammalian integument

2. glands- sweat, scent, sebaceous, mammary

a. Eccrine sweat glands secrete a watery fluid that draws heat away

from the body surface…found in hairless regions of the body

b. Apocrine sweat glands are larger and open into a hair follicle. They are unrelated to heat and tied to reproductive cycles. In humans, they develop during puberty and are restricted to armpits, ear canals, and pubic areas.

c. Scent glands used to communicate with members of same

species for breeding, territory marking, and defense

d. Sebaceous glands which serve as a dressing to keep skin

moist, fur glossy or waterproof.

e. Mammary glands occur on all female mammals. Some

mammals develop only during nursing, humans develop at

puberty with additional fat deposits.

types of glands
Types of glands

Sweat glands

Mammary glands

Scent glands- marking territory!

Sebaceous glands

major adaptations of mammals con t3
MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t

V.Mammalian integument

3. Horns and antlers

a. true horns-found in ruminants

(sheep and cattle family)

1. hollow sheaths of keratin over bone

2. they embrace a core of bone arising

from the skull

3. they are not normally shed and are not

usually branched.

4. are found on both sexes within a

species but are usually longer in males

3 horns and antlers continued
3. Horns and antlers continued

b. Antlers-found in the deer family

1. composed of solid bone when mature

2. grow under a covering of vascular skin called velvet.

3. when growth is complete, the blood vessels constrict and the stag removes the velvety by rubbing it against trees.

4. antlers are shed after breeding season

5. each year the antlers are bigger than the year before

6. only Caribou females have antlers

7. in Moose and Elk, males must acquire over 50 lbs. of calcium each year to grow their antlers

rhino horn
Rhino horn
  • C. Rhinocerous Horn

1. hair like keratinized filaments are cemented

together

2. Are not attached to the skull

vi food and feeding
VI. FOOD AND FEEDING
  • Teeth-structure of teeth reveal the lifestyle of an animal

1. Incisors have sharp edges for biting

2. Canines are specialized for piercing

3. Premolars have compressed crowns for shearing

4. Molars have larger, flatter tops for Grinding

5. Generally, mammals have one deciduous set and

one Permanent set.

feeding specializations
Feeding Specializations

1. Insectivores include shrews, moles, and most bats

2. Herbivores include 3 sub-groups

a. Gnawers include rodents, rabbits

b. Browsers and grazers include horses, deer, cattle, sheep-all hoofed animals are called Ungulates, one sub group of ungulates are called ruminants which have a huge 3-4 chambered stomach. The chambers of the stomach are called the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum

3. Omnivores include raccoons, bears, pigs, rats and most primates

4. Carnivores include members of the dog, cat, and seal family.

slide18

Teeth types

Insectivore teeth

Carnivore teeth

Herbivore teeth

Omnivore teeth

vii special senses in mammals
VII. Special Senses in mammals
  • Many mammals have large moveable pinnae

(ear flaps) to aid in capturing sound and locating

the source.

B. Senses of smell, sight, and hearing are more or less intense in each species.

C. Echolocation is the ability to use sound waves to locate and identify objects.

Two orders, Cetacea and Chiroptera

have this ability, but it is used in very different environments.

reproduction in mammals
Reproduction in Mammals
  • Monotremes are egg-layers

and there is a cloaca for fertilization in

the female and the male’s testes are

housed inside the abdominal cavity

B. Marsupials have a primitive

placenta that doesn’t allow

for many nutrients to pass

from mother to offspring, so

the embryo is expelled and crawls

to the marsupium which is a pouch

with a teat inside that the young

animal attaches and completes development.B

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C. Marsupial males have testes

housed outside the abdominal

cavity in a sac-like extension

called the scrotum. Most

placental males also have

a scrotum, except for the

aquatic mammals and elephants.

D. Placental mammals carry their

Young in the uterus for the entire fetal period and

The fetus is fed and cared for by the placenta.

slide22

E. Mammary glands are made up of clusters of milk-secreting glands. Milk is made up of the sugar lactose. Various proteins, fats, salts, vitamins and antibodies from the mother’s immune system. Immediately after birth, there is a special milk produced called Colostrum which is made up

of large amounts of white cells

and antibodies to protect

the infant from infection

until its own immune

system develops.

reproduction timing
Reproduction Timing

A. Estrus is the condition of a female mammal being receptive to the male during certain intervals in an ovarian hormonal cycle.

  • Polyestrusmammals mate and rear young several times a year

ex. Mice and Rats

  • Monoestrusmammals mate only once a year (or longer) sometimes called seasonal breeders

ex. Buffalo and Deer

Gestation periods-

Cats-56 days mice-16 days guinea pigs-77 days

Dogs-63 days bats-154 days humans-280 days

Elephant-670 days

orders of class mammalia
ORDERS OF CLASS MAMMALIA
  • Subclass Prototheria
    • Monotremata-egg laying mammals with a cloaca

Duck-billed platypus

      • Lack teeth, but have a beak like a bird
      • Female platypuses lack nipples but secrete milk onto their fur.
      • Stream dwellers who live on invertebrates

Spiny anteaters (echidna)

      • Eat ants and termites and earthworms
      • Female lays one egg at a time which she carries in a pouch
      • Infant anteaters live in the pouch for two months sucking milk from two skin projections (primitive nipples)
monotremata
Monotremata

Spiny anteater or Echidna

Duck-billed platypus

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II. Subclass Theria-two subgroups called Metatheria and Eutheria

  • Infraclass Metatheria-one order Marsupialia

1. identified by the presence of a marsupium which acts as a brood pouch

for the developing embryo after it has left the womb.

2. only one marsupial species in North America, the opposum

3. 250 species of Marsupials, found mainly in Australia, and Central and So. America

4. Australia has been marsupial heaven because of its remote locale

a. the dominate herbivore is the Kangaroo

b. the dominate carnivores were the Tasmanian

Wolf and the Tasmanian Tiger and the Tasmanian Devil

c. other Distinctive Australian marsupials include the

Wombat, Bandicoot, Koala, and Wallaby

b infraclass eutheria
B. Infraclass Eutheria

True placental mammals made up of 18 orders

  • Order Insectivora

a. small, terrestrial or semi-aquatic mammals

with long tapered snouts, tiny eyes and short fur.

b. most are carnivorous, feeding on insects and

earthworms.

c. some have poisonous saliva

EX. Hedgehogs, shrews, moles

order insectivora
Order Insectivora

shrews

voles

hedgehogs

tenrecs

2 order chiroptera
2. Order Chiroptera

About 1000 species of bats (second largest order)

a. most new-world bats are insectivores and

most old-world bats are fruit and flower

eaters.

b. there are also bird,fish, frog and bat eating

bats. Three species of new-world bats are

blood-drinkers

c. Bats are the only mammals to have evolved true flight.

The fore-limbs are modified with the 2nd to 5th digit

elongated to support thin membraneous wings, thumb

usually free.

d. Bats are mainly nocturnal in order to avoid direct

competiton with birds for food.

e. Bats that are carnivorous have developed Echolocation to

locate prey.

order chiroptera
Order Chiroptera

BATS

“HAND WING”

order primates
Order Primates

175 species (including humans)

  • Found in Africa, S.E. Asia, and South America
  • Most species are aboreal or tree-dwellers
  • Examples include: Lemurs, Baboons, Apes, Monkeys, and Chimps & Humans
  • All have forward facing eyes and opposable thumbs
  • Family Hominidae includes four genera: Gorilla,Pan (chimps), Pongo (orangutan) and Homo (humans)
order primates1
Order Primates

“FIRST”

order carnivora
Order Carnivora

About 240 species

A. terrestrial carnivores include the dog, cat, weasel, hyenas, racoon, bear, badger, coyotes

B. aquatic carnivores include seals, otters, walrus

C. not all carnivores are truly carnivores, bears and racoons are omnivores and the Panda eats only bamboo.

D. Most other carnivores have a well developed sense of smell, and have limbs adapted for running down prey.

order carnivora1
Order Carnivora

Bear family

Weasel family

Dog family

Musk family

Marine family

Cat family

order perrisodactyla
Order Perrisodactyla

Odd-toed animals (ex. Horses, rhinos, and tapirs)

And

Order Artiodactyla

Even-toed animals (ex. Swine, camel, deer, giraffes, cattle,sheep, and hippos)

Collectively called the Ungulates

  • All are hooved herbivores
  • Have limbs adapted forrunning in order to escape predators.
  • One sub group of Ungulates are called ruminants, these animals hae a modified digestive system to aid in digesting Cellulose. ( This group includes cattle, sheep, and antelope)

“ Eyes on the side, likes to hide

Eyes in the front, likes to hunt!”

order perrisodactyla1
Order Perrisodactyla

“odd-toed” hoofed mammals

order artiodactyla
Order Artiodactyla

“Even-toed” hooved mammals

slide39

7. Order Proboscidea(ex. Elephants)

Order Sirena( ex. Manatees, dugongs)

Order hyracoidea( ex. Hyraxes)

These three orders are referred to as the

Subungulates

Because they have a caecumand some have vestigial hooves

  • All are herbivores
  • Thought to have come from a common ancestor in Africa.
order proboscidea
Order Proboscidea

Indian elephant

African elephant

order sirena
Order Sirena

“Sea Nymph”

order hyracoidea
Order Hyracoidea

“Shrew”

Hyraxes-closest living relative to the elephant

7 order xenartha
7. Order Xenartha

(ex. Anteaters, sloths,armadillos)

  • Only found in the new world tropics
  • Have extra cervical joint and lack canine teeth and incisors
  • Anteaters lack all teeth but have a long, sticky tongue that they capture ants with
  • Sloths are herbivores that sleep a lot and spend their life hanging upside down. Their body temperature is very low.
  • Armadillos are omnivores and have distinctive bony plates covering their bodies.
order xenartha
Order Xenartha

“Intrusive joint”

8 order cetacea
8. Order Cetacea

(Whales, dolphins and porpoises)

  • Highly intelligent
  • Form social groups
  • All excellent swimmers
  • Tail fins undulate up and down rather than side to side as fish do
  • Nostrils are located on top of the head and is called a “blow hole”
  • This order is divided into two suborders, the Mysticetiwhich filter feed on small invertebrates and the Odontocetiwhich use Echolocation to locate prey in the ocean
9 order rodentia
9. Order Rodentia

(Ex. Beavers, rats and mice, squirrels)

  • Largest order with 1760 species
  • Have one pair of elongated incisors that grow throughout life
  • Most rodents are herbivores but some, such as rats are omnivores
  • Have the highest rate of reproduction and many are considered pests

bottom of the food chain!

order rodentia
Order Rodentia

“To gnaw”

Largest order!!

10 order lagomorpha ex rabbits hares and pikas
10. Order Lagomorpha(ex. Rabbits, hares and pikas)
  • Also have continuosly growing incisors but also have a second pair of incisors in the upper jaw.
  • Are similar morphologically but different physiologically
  • Hares have well-developed young, that find their own homes in the grass and the mother visits them to nurse several times a day. Usually have three to four offspring

ex. Jackrabbits, snowshoe hares

  • Rabbits have hairless and blind young in a burrow and have 6-9 offspring at a time.

ex. Cottontails-easter bunnies

order lagomorpha
Order Lagomorpha

“Hare form”

order scandentia
Order Scandentia

TREE SHREWS

“climbing”

order dermoptera
Order Dermoptera

Flying lemurs

“Skin wing”

order macroscelida
Order Macroscelida

Elephant shrews

order pholidota
Order Pholidota

pangolins

“Horny scale”

order tubulidentata
Order Tubulidentata

“Earth pig”

Aardvark