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Persistent Surveillance. John S. Allen University of Hawaii- Manoa Honolulu, HI 96822. Illegal Fishing and Drug Traffic Small Boat Localization Underwater – AUV and Divers Boat Classification Active Mitigation . Boat Localization . Downtown Honolulu. Honolulu Harbor. Oahu, Hawai’i, USA

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persistent surveillance

Persistent Surveillance

John S. Allen

University of Hawaii-Manoa

Honolulu, HI 96822


Illegal Fishing and Drug Traffic

  • Small Boat Localization
  • Underwater – AUV and Divers
  • Boat Classification
  • Active Mitigation
boat localization
Boat Localization

Downtown Honolulu

Honolulu Harbor

  • Oahu, Hawai’i, USA
  • Kilo NaluNearshore Reef Observatory
  • Undersea cable 0.4 km from shore
  • 12-m water
  • Harbors:
    • Honolulu Harbor (commercial)
    • Kewalo Basin Harbor (commercial, recreational)


Kewalo Basin Harbor

Deployment Site


Small boat

Single small outboard motor

Handheld GPS recorded location

GPS manually synchronized against array clock

~ 1 sec accuracy

Broadband noise source


CTR (Correlation-Time-Record)

“Ghost lines” got us thinking…

Multipath correlation invariant?

What happens for far away target?







  • Boat going in circles around the deployment site:

target far away

boat localization1
Boat Localization

Possible target location

Possible target location

  • Can we get range & break left/right ambiguity using single pair?
  • Multipath
  • Current methodology:
  • Multiple pairs of sensors
    • Hyperbola from each pair, look for intersection
  • Cannot deploy on mobile platform
multipath image theory
Multipath – Image Theory
  • Correlation lag times depend on:
    • bathymetry
    • target bearing
    • target range

bottom-surface image





If we know depth of bottom reflection, we can predict correlation lag of each peak.

So, can we invert for the range/bearing?


Collaborative Project : NUWC Keyport

Prevent Combat Swimmer Entry into Area of Treatment Pier

May-June 2013 – Passive Acoustics (Coda Octopus), September 2013- Sonar, Navy Seals


Project Justification: The Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH)

Deperm facility commenced operations in FY 2012. A reliable undersea

threat detection capability is required in order to provide increased

level of protection for high-value Naval assets during deperming


Specific Goal for current FY: Presently, most challenging threat to detect and track is combat swimmer utilizing Closed-Circuit Rebreather (CCR).

NUWC Code 244 will partner with University of Hawaii UARC (Dr. Allen) to collect acoustic signals emitted by divers with CCRs. Diving near the Deperm Facility, divers will make lateral passes on the hydrophone array (provided by UH/Dr. Allen) and single broad-band hydrophone (provided by NUWC NPT Sound Lab) at various ranges. Range selections vary from “loudly audible” to “definitely not audible”.

Goals are to continue development in following FY with proof of concept. This year’s activities should collect the data necessary to determine the way-ahead.

Sponsors: NUWC Keyport and JBPHH

Customers: COMSUBPAC N99 and PMS 480


Recent studies indicate more intricate echolocation processes

Acoustic array allows to understand 3D composition of echolocation signals

Ability to work with a false killer whale (Pseudorcacrassidens)


Kilo-Nalu Ocean Observatory

Site – 12 meter

Portable Arrays -24 Channels,300 Hz-50 KHz bandwidth, 24 bit acquisition, 120 lbs