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Biology 1 Nov. Please start a NEW PAGE for your warm-up & answer using FULL sentences. Did you study for yesterdayexam ? * If YES – HOW did you study? * If NO – WHY didn’t you study? List additional 3 ways you COULD HAVE studied. Exam corrections – Half credit

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biology 1 nov
Biology 1 Nov.

Please start a NEW PAGE for your warm-up & answer using FULL sentences.

  • Did you study for yesterdayexam?

* If YES – HOW did you study?

* If NO – WHY didn’t you study?

  • List additional 3 ways you COULD HAVE studied.
  • Exam corrections – Half credit
    • Grade less than 75% … be here or expect a phone call home!
    • Thursday 11/3:
      • Homeroom, Lunch or After School (be here by 2:45)
    • Friday 11/4: Lunch or After School
      • Before school (I’m here by 7AM)
inquiry
Inquiry
  • Core Content: Conducting Analyses and Thinking Logically
  • Apply the scientific inquiry process to investigate the natural world.
  • Generate and evaluate questions, scientific investigation, natural world, analyze data, conclusions
  • Understand and apply communication, collaboration, and scientific honesty to the advancement of science. 
  • Hypotheses, evidence, theory, testable predictions, reliability, communication, validity, intellectual honesty
1 3 november 2011
1-3 November, 2011
  • Readthe article. “Strange But True: Drinking Too Much Water Can Kill”
  • Answer questions about the article in the back of your lab book (warmup section).
  • Too Much Water http://www.webmd.com/video/benefits-of-water
cell membranes are made of molecules called phospholipids
Cell membranes are made of molecules called PHOSPHOLIPIDS
  • Lipid = FATS/OILS
  • How do oils respond to water?
    • Not attracted to water
  • HYDROPHOBIC
    • Water-fearing
  • Phosphate “heads”
    • Attracted to water
  • HYDROPHILIC
    • Water-liking
cell membranes are a bilayer
Cell membranes are a “Bilayer”
  • Two layers of phospholipids
  • Inside: hydrophobic tail
  • Outside: hydrophilic heads

Think: Doublestuff OREO cookie.

The PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER is the basic structure of cell membranes.

  • Animation: http://www.yellowtang.org/animations/bilayer.swf
what s all that stuff in the membrane
What’s all that “stuff” in the membrane?

Membrane Permeability: http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_int_membraneweb/

cell membranes
Cell Membranes
  • Membranes are not “frozen” structures, like a brick wall.
    • They are fluid!
    • Fluid = Able to move.
  • Animation: http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/lipids/membrane%20fluidity.swf
cell membranes1
Cell Membranes
  • Membrane-spanning proteins + Fluidity enables molecules to get into and out of cells.
  • Membrane Permeability: http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_int_membraneweb/
  • Faciltated Diffusion:
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_facilitated_diffusion_works.html
cellular transport ch 7 3

Cellular TransportCh. 7-3

Adapted from Brookings.com

http://www.brookings.k12.sd.us/biology/transport.htm

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_main.html

teacher s domain
Teacher’s Domain
  • http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_int_membraneweb/
slide13
Diffusion

http://lhs.lps.org/staff/sputnam/Biology/U3Cell/diffusion_1.png

slide14
Animatioin from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/diffusion-animated.gif

Molecules move

_______“where there’s _______”

____“where there’s _______”

FROM

A LOT

to

NOT

diffusion across a space
DIFFUSION across a space

DIFFERENCE

Happens anytime there is a __________ in concentration in one place compared to another

= ________________________

Concentration gradient

diffusion across a space1
DIFFUSION across a SPACE

DOWN

from

Higher

to

Lower

Molecules move automatically _______ the concentration gradient

_______ an area of _______ concentration ____ an area of

________ concentration

  • EXAMPLES

Blue dye in beaker demo,

Someone making popcorn/grilling out

Strong perfume,

Bad smell in room

http://leighhouse.typepad.com/blog/images/kool_aid.jpg

http://www.swapmeetdave.com/Humor/Farts.htm

diffusion across a space2
DIFFUSION across a space

equal everywhere

Diffusion continues until the concentration is ________________

in space

= ________________________

Equilibrium

http://lhs.lps.org/staff/sputnam/Biology/U3Cell/diffusion_1.png

molecules need to move across membranes in cells
Molecules need to move across membranes in cells

Image modiified from: http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/importProt.html

diffusion can happen a in a cell too
acrossDiffusion can happen ________ a _____________ in a cell, too

membrane

…as long as membrane will let the molecule _________________

pass through

vocab
VOCAB

_____________ = substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution

_____________ = substance in which a solute is dissolved

SOLUTE

SOLVENT

http://www.makash.ac.il/h_school/hst/hstsb/chem/luach/dissolve.jpg

slide21
Images by Riedell

CONCENTRATION

__________________ = mass of a solute in a given volume of solution

A

B

MORE

The _______ molecules there are in a given volume the ____________the concentration

GREATER

use new vocab to make koolaid
Use new vocab to make Koolaid

Koolaid powder

sugar

Solutes = ______________& __________

Solvent = ____________

Koolaid drink = ______________

Water

solution

http://www.makash.ac.il/h_school/hst/hstsb/chem/luach/dissolve.jpg

what if there is a difference in concentration but solute molecules can t move across a membrane
What if there is a difference in concentration but solute molecules can’t move across a membrane?

WATER will move

until concentration

reaches equilibrium

video of osmosis
Video of Osmosis
  • How Osmosis Works- Prentice Hall
slide28
Animation: http://www.ouhscphysio.org/humanphys/animations/osmosis1.swf

See an animationOsmosis1

Animation

http://faculty.etsu.edu/currie/images/osmosis1.jpg

slide29
Solute concentration

Greater outside

than inside

Lower outside

than inside

Equal outside

and inside

HYPERTONIC

HYPOTONIC

ISOTONIC

What will happen to an animal cell

placed in different solutions?

slide30
Remember:

Cells try to “maintain stable internal conditions =

____________________

HOMEOSTASIS

http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol121/Osmosis/Osmosis.asp

So an animal cell in

ISOTONIC conditions

stays same size

Water entering = water leaving

Video

Choose Blood Isotonic link

slide31
If cells can’t maintain

“stable internal conditions” . . .

damage can result and cells can die.

http://www.the-aps.org/education/lot/cell/Quiz.htm

osmosis
Animation from: http://www.ouhscphysio.org/humanphys/animations/osmosis3.swfOSMOSIS

See an animationOsmosis3

HYPOTONIC:Concentration outside cell is ________________ inside the cellMore water enters than leaves cell so cellwill ___________________

Choose Blood

Hypotonic link

Video

LESS THAN

swell and possibly burst

osmosis1
Animation from: http://www.ouhscphysio.org/humanphys/animations/osmosis4.swfOSMOSIS

See an animation

OSMOSIS 4

HYPERTONIC: Concentration outside cell is ____________________ inside cell

More water leaves cell than enters so cell ____________

GREATER THAN

shrinks

Choose Blood

Hypertonic link

Video

animal cells
http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/bloodcells.gifAnimal cells

_________ __________

= CYTOLYSIS

= CRENATION

plant cells
http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/aplantturgor.gifPlant cells

_____ keeps ___________

plant cells from bursting

= PLASMOLYSIS

CELL WALL

vacuoles store water
VACUOLES store WATER

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_vacuole.html

OSMOTIC PRESSURE

_____________________________ =

Pressure exerted by the movement of water during osmosis

so what
SO WHAT?

Bath water is

________________

compared to you

Sitting in the bathtub causes your fingers and toes to wrinkle up when water ________ your skin cells by osmosis

hypotonic

enters

grocery stores spray water on their veggies to plump them up
Grocery stores spray water on their veggies to “plump them up”

http://www.painetworks.com/photos/gt/gt0461.JPG

slide40
CELL EXAMPLE:

DIFFUSION automatically moves oxygen from HIGHER concentration (in lungs) to a LOWER concentration (in blood)

CO2 automatically movesfrom where there is a

HIGHER concentration

(in blood) to where there

is a lower concentration

(in lungs)

http://www.le.ac.uk/pa/teach/va/anatomy/case2/2_2.html

what if cell needs to move a molecule the concentration gradient
What if cell needs to move a molecule _________ the CONCENTRATION GRADIENT?_______________

AGAINST

Cell example:

Want to put MORE glucose

into mitochondria when there is

already glucose in there

(LOWER HIGHER)

Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg

problem for cells cell membranes are selectively permeable
Video from: http://www.southtexascollege.edu/tdehne/BC_ShockwaveAnimations/08SWF-MembraneStructureAndFunct/08-02-MembraneStructure.swfPROBLEM for Cells?Cell membranes areSELECTIVELY PERMEABLE

See a movie

what if a cell needs to move or molecules that can t get through the membrane
What if a cell needs to move _____ or ______ moleculesthat can’t getthrough themembrane?

LARGE

POLAR

http://www.d.umn.edu/~sdowning/Membranes/membraneImages/jpegimages/diffusionmedium.jpg

what if cell needs to move molecules really can t wait for it to diffuse
What if cell needs to move molecules really _______? (can’t wait for it to diffuse)

FAST

Cell example:

Movement of Na + & K+ ions

required to send

nerve signals

http://www.steve.gb.com/images/science/neuron.png

cells need a to molecules across cell membranes that across by
Cells need a ____ to ____ molecules across cell membranes that _______ across by ___________

WAY

HELP

can’t go

themselves

kinds of transport
PASSIVEKinds of ________ Transport
  • Diffusion

__________________________________

___________________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

  • Facilitated Diffusion
  • Carriers
  • Channels
sites for concept maps
Sites for concept maps
  • http://cmapspublic2.ihmc.us/servlet/SBReadResourceServlet?rid=1165154970624_192798767_6077&partName=htmltext
diffusion across a membrane
DIFFUSION across a membrane

concentration

DIFFERENCE

Happens anytime there is a __________ in _____________ on one side of the membrane compared to the other

See diffusionanimation

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/passiveanim.html

diffusion
http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol22000/10Biomembranes/images/membrane.gifDIFFUSION

PASSIVE

  • No energy required = _______
  • Moves _______ concentration gradient

from ___________________

  • Works for any molecules that can pass through the membrane
  • Example of molecules that move this way in cells:

________ & ____________

DOWN

HIGHER to LOWER

OXYGEN Carbon dioxide

facilitated diffusion uses to help molecules across 2 kinds of proteins help
FACILITATED DIFFUSIONuses _______________ to help molecules across2 kinds of proteins help: _________ & ____________

membrane proteins

Carriers

Channels

Animations from: http://bio.winona.edu/berg/ANIMTNS/facdifan.gif

http://www2.uic.edu/~myilma1/ionchannel.gif

facilitated diffusion with carrier proteins
Facilitated Diffusion with CARRIER PROTEINS

Animation from: http://bio.winona.edu/berg/ANIMTNS/facdifan.gif

Carrier protein

grabs molecule,

changes shape, and

flips across to

other side like a

revolving door

http://www.gobananas.co.uk/edinburgh-stag-party/enquiry/index.htm

facilitated diffusion with channels
FACILITATED DIFFUSION with CHANNELS

Membrane

proteins

create a

tunnel through

which molecules

can pass

http://bio.winona.edu/berg/ANIMTNS/voltgate.htm

ION CHANNELS

charged

_______________ allow________ ionsto get past the ____________ center

hydrophobic

facilitated diffusion with channels1
FACILITATED DIFFUSION with CHANNELS

polar

________ proteins allow ________

_________ molecules to get past

the __________ middle of cell

membrane.

Aquaporin

WATER

hydrophobic

http://www.spps.kvl.dk/news/0507/Lund4.jpg

facilitated diffusion with channels2
FACILITATED DIFFUSION with CHANNELS

The movement of water molecules

across a cell membrane is called

______________

OSMOSIS

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/channelanim.html

all kinds of facilitated diffusion
ALL KINDS OF FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  • No energy required = _____________
  • Moves ________ concentration gradient

from ________________________

  • ___________________ help molecules get across membrane

PASSIVE

DOWN

HIGHER to LOWER

Membrane proteins

examples of facilitated diffusion in cells
EXAMPLES OF FACILITATED DIFFUSION IN CELLS
  • CARRIER PROTEINS
  • ION CHANNELS
  • AQUAPORINS (OSMOSIS)

GLUCOSE

Na+ , Cl- , Ca++ , K+

WATER

kinds of transport1
Kinds of ________Transport

ACTIVE

________________________________________

__________________________________

________________________________

___________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

  • PUMPS
  • Sodium-Potassium
  • Proton
  • Vesicles
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis

http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/biology1111/animations/active1.swf Good clip about active and passive transport!

slide63
See a video clip about

Na+-K+ pump -7D

na and k pump
Na+and K + PUMP

Animation from: http://www.lionden.com/cell_animations.htm

See a movieabout Na+ - K+ pump

sodium potassium pump
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP

ACTIVE

ATP

  • ___________ transport

(requires energy from ______)

  • Can move molecules from _____ concentration

to ______

  • Special just for Na+and K +ions
  • Uses _______________________ called

____________ to move molecules

  • Example: nerve cellsNa+is pumped out of cells at same time K +is taken into cells

low

high

membrane proteins

pumps

proton pump
PROTON PUMP

Moves

Protons

across

membrane

= ___ ions

H+

See a movie proton pump

More on this in Chap 8 & 9

proton pump1
PROTON PUMP

ACTIVE

ATP

  • ___________ transport

(requires energy from ______)

  • Can move molecules from _____ concentrationto ________
  • Special just for H+ions
  • Uses integral ________________ to move molecules

Examples:

  • Lysosomes need acidic conditions for digestion
  • Photosynthesis/Respiration (more on this to come in Ch 8 & 9)

low

high

Protein pumps

active transport with vesicles
ACTIVE TRANSPORT with VESICLES

VESICLES

___________ are small membrane sacs that pinch off of cell membranes used by cells for transporting molecules

Used for transporting molecules:

If entering the cell = ______________

If exiting the cell = _______________

ENDOCYTOSIS

EXOCYTOSIS

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/cell-movement.html

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/exocy.htm

slide69
See a video clip about

Endo/exocytosis -7E

2 kinds of endocytosis for taking substances into cell
2 KINDS of ENDOCYTOSISfor taking substances into cell

If taking in:

fluid or small molecules =_________________

large particles or whole cells =______________

PINOCYTOSIS

PHAGOCYTOSIS

Animation from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/endocytb.htm

endocytosis substances taken into cell
ENDOCYTOSISSubstances taken into cell

ACTIVE

energy

  • __________ transport (requires________)
  • Uses ______________ to carry substances
  • Can move molecules from _____ concentration

to ______

Examples in cells:

    • one celled organisms eat this way
    • white blood cells get rid of bacteria this way

VESICLES

low

high

endocytosis
ENDOCYTOSIS

Animation from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/cell-movement.html

Protist eating

another

http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20nine/

phagocytosis
PHAGOCYTOSIS

germs

White blood cell

___________ destroying _______

white blood cell engulfing bacteria phagocytosis
WHITE BLOOD CELL ENGULFING BACTERIA(Phagocytosis)

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255ion/fig14x28.jpg

exocytosis substances released outside of cell
EXOCYTOSISSubstances released outside of cell

ACTIVE

energy

  • __________ transport (requires________)
  • Uses ______________ to carry substances
  • Can move molecules from _____ concentration

to ______

  • Examples in cells:
    • _________ release packaged proteins this way

VESICLES

low

high

GOLGI

golgi bodies use exocytosis
Video: http://www.southtexascollege.edu/tdehne/BC_ShockwaveAnimations/07SWF-TourOfTheCell/07-16-EndomembraneSystem.swfGOLGI BODIES USE EXOCYTOSIS

Animation from: http://www.franklincollege.edu/bioweb/A&Pfiles/week04.html

See a Golgi movie

endocytosis exocytosis
Videos from:

http://www.pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/thiel/apbio/notes/chp8/exocytosis_endocytosis.mov

http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week2/endocytosis.mov

Endocytosis & Exocytosis

Watch a video clip about endo/exocytosis

Watch a video clip about endo/exocytosis

video

Choose Screen/Switch programs to view

insulin being released by pancreas cells using exocytosis
INSULIN being released by pancreas cells using exocytosis

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255ion/fig14x26.jpg

slide80
SOUTH DAKOTA SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE

Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things.

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.

Transport

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