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KURSUS PEMANTAPAN SEJARAH SPM 2009 27-30 APRIL 2009. ANJURAN JPN SELANGOR TEMPAT HOTEL ROSA PASSADENA, CAMERON HIGHLANDS. KUMPULAN 3. KASMAIDI BIN AB.KADER (SMK KG.SOEHARTO) HANITA SAMADI (SMK SEKSYEN 24 SHAH ALAM) ROZEE BT HJ.RUSLANI (SMK BDR TUN HUSSEIN ONN 2)

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KURSUS PEMANTAPAN SEJARAH SPM 2009 27-30 APRIL 2009


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    1. KURSUS PEMANTAPAN SEJARAH SPM 200927-30 APRIL 2009 ANJURAN JPN SELANGOR TEMPAT HOTEL ROSA PASSADENA, CAMERON HIGHLANDS

    2. KUMPULAN 3 • KASMAIDI BIN AB.KADER (SMK KG.SOEHARTO) • HANITA SAMADI (SMK SEKSYEN 24 SHAH ALAM) • ROZEE BT HJ.RUSLANI (SMK BDR TUN HUSSEIN ONN 2) • NOR AZLINA ZAINAL ABIDIN (SMK TAMAN SEA) • NORPISHAH BT MD.REJAB (SMK DENGKIL)

    3. BAB 2: PENINGKATAN TAMADUN

    4. OBJEKTIF PEMBELAJARAN • Menyatakan latar belakang tamadun Yunani, Rom, India dan China. • Mengenal pasti aspek-aspek yang membawa kepada peningkatan tamadun. • Menghuraikan sumbangan tamadun Yunani, Rom, India dan China. • Merasionalkan kepentingan agama dan ajaran utama dunia dalam perkembangan tamadun manusia.

    5. 4 TAMADUN DUNIA YANG MENGALAMI PENINGKATAN YUNANI ROM CHINA INDIA

    6. KEDUDUKAN TAMADUN DALAM PETA DUNIA

    7. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: T U K E S A H DAPAT FULUS TAPI BUAT SAMPAH SARAP • PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN • PERUNDANGAN • PERLUASAN KUASA • PENINGKATAN EKONOMI • PENINGKATAN SOSIAL PENDIDIKAN FALSAFAH SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI SENI BINA BAHASA & SASTERA SISTEM SOSIAL

    8. TAMADUN YUNANI

    9. YUNANI –PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN

    10. PEMERINTAHAN NEGARA KOTA MONARKI OLIGARKI ARISTOKRASI TIRANI/DIKTATOR DEMOKRASI

    11. SISTEM DEMOKRASI DI ATHENS

    12. PERBEZAAN DEMOKRASI

    13. PERUNDANGAN UNDANG-UNDANG DIGUBAL OLEH DEWAN PERHIMPUNAN NEGARA HARUS DIPERINTAH OLEH AHLI FALSAFAH KERANA HANYA MEREKA FAHAMI UNDANG-UNDANG (PLATO)

    14. PERLUASAN KUASA DAN PEMBENTUKAN EMPAYAR YUNANI

    15. PENYATUAN MACEDONIA DENGAN YUNANI OLEH PHILIP II

    16. Alexander The Great…. Telah menyebarkan kebudayaan Hellenistik ke negara-negara Jajahan takluknya.

    17. HELLENISTIK? Hellenistic civilization thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of Asia, and a departure from the traditional Greek attitude to "barbarian" cultures. The extent to which a genuinely hybrid Greco-Asian cultures emerged is contentious; consensus tends to point towards pragmatic cultural adaptation by the elites of society; for the mass of the population, life would probably have continued much as before[1].

    18. During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were Alexandria and Antioch, capitals of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Syria respectively. Cities such as Pergamon, Ephesus, Rhodes and Seleucia were also important, and increasing urbanization of the Eastern Mediterranean was characteristic of the time.

    19. Hellenistic culture. The name derives from the fact that Greek culture spread throughout the area in the last 3 centuries before the common era. In the Hellenistic period, It was in the cities that the descendants of the Greco-Macedonian conquerors became a professional class of rulers and soldiers and merchants, which provided a cultural and economic bond throughout the area, even though political unity did not survive the death of Alexander. As the administrators and the merchants of their world, in spite of being in the minority, they had an influence out of proportion to their numbers. The city of Alexandria, founded by Alexander, located on the Mediterranean at the mouth of the Nile, became the most prominent center of commerce and learning. The library in Alexandria became the depository for recording many of the literary and scientific achievements of the time. Although women continued to have a subordinate status, some lucky few of the wealthy and ruling classes, would have the opportunity to become involved in commerce or in intellectual activities. For the most part, however, women had no part in public life. Slavery, which had been a commonly accepted practice throughout the history of ancient civilization, remained a prominent part of Hellenistic culture.

    20. Serba sedikit tentang riwayat hidup dan perjuangan Alexander The Great meluaskan empayar…

    21. PENINGKATAN EKONOMI

    22. PENINGKATAN SOSIAL

    23. PENINGKATAN SOSIAL

    24. About …ILIAD & ODYSSEY The Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιάς [iliás] (Ancient), Ιλιάδα [ili'aða] (Modern)) is, together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Greekepic poems traditionally attributed to Homer. However, the claim of a single author is disputed, as the poems show evidence of a long oral tradition and hence, possible multiple authors. Many scholars believe the poem to be the oldest extant work of literature in the ancient Greek language. The poem concerns events during the tenth and final year of the Trojan War, the siege of the city of Ilion or Troy, by the Greeks. The plot centers on the Greek warrior Achilles and his anger toward the king of Mycenae, Agamemnon, which proves disastrous for the Greeks.[2] It provides many of the events that the later poems of the Epic Cycle build on, including the death of the Trojan captain Hector. Written in dactylic hexameter, the Iliad comprises 15,693 lines of verse. Later ancient Greeks divided it into twenty-four books or scrolls, a convention that has lasted to the present day with little change. The word Iliad means "pertaining to Ilios" (in Latin, Ilium), the city proper, as opposed to Troy (in Greek, Τροία, Troía; in Latin, Troia, Troiae, f., in TurkishTruva), the state centered around Ilium.

    25. Daily Life in Athens Boys were taught at home by their mothers until they were 6 or 7 years old. In Athens the education was left up to the father. Students were taught by private schoolmasters. The boys from wealthy families were taken to school by a trusted slave. The students learned to write on wax-covered tablets with a stylus. Books were very expensive, so they were rare. The students in Athens learned to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. They also learned about fractions. Students learned the words of Homer and how to play the lyre. Boys were trained in sports. Wealthy children learned to ride horseback. Other sports included wrestling, using a bow and a sling, and swimming. At age 14 boys attended a higher school for four more years. At age 18 boys went to military school. They graduated at age 20. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    26. Daily life of Spartan… Spartan SchoolsWhen babies were born in Sparta, Spartan soldiers would come by the house to examine them. If the baby did not look healthy, it was taken away and left to die or trained as a slave. If the baby was healthy, it was assigned membership in a brotherhood or sisterhood. The boys in Sparta were sent to military camps of their brotherhood when they turned 7. They learned how to read and write until they were about 14.  The Spartan government wanted to make the boys tough. To do this they were given little clothing and no shoes. They slept on hard beds made of reeds and were not given any covers. They were not given enough food. They were trained in survival skills and how to be a good soldier. Reading and writing were taught as secondary skills. Between ages 18 to 20 each boy had to pass a fitness test. If he did not pass the test, he became a perioidos. This was a person of middle class who had no political rights and was not even considered a citizen. If the boy passed he served in the military and continued to train as a soldier. Military service lasted until the boy reached age 60. The girls were trained in the school of their sisterhood. They were taught physical education. Classes include wrestling, gymnastics, and combat training. The Spartans wanted girls to be strong so that they would have healthy children. At age 18 the Spartan girl had to pass a fitness test. She was then assigned a husband and allowed to return home. If she failed the test, she became a perioikos.

    27. WARGA SPARTA

    28. ACROPOLIS

    29. PARTHENON – RUMAH IBADAT (TUHAN ATHENA)

    30. SUMBANGAN TAMADUN YUNANI

    31. OLIMPIK The most famous games held at Olympia, South- West of Greece, which took place every four years. The ancient Olympics seem to have begun in the early 700 BC, in honour of Zeus. No women were allowed to watch the games and only Greek nationals could participate. One of the ancient wonders was a statue of Zeus at Olympia, made of gold and ivory by a Greek sculptor Pheidias. This was placed inside a Temple, although it was a towering 42 feet high. The games at Olympia were greatly expanded from a one-day festival of athletics and wrestling to, in 472 BC, five days with many events. The order of the events is not precisely known, but the first day of the festival was devoted to sacrifices. On the Middle Day of the festival 100 oxen were sacrificed in honor of a God. Athletes also often prayed and made small sacrifices themselves.. On the second day, the foot-race, the main event of the games, took place in the stadium, an oblong area enclosed by sloping banks of earth.At Olympia there were 4 different types of races; The first was stadion, the oldest event of the Games, where runners sprinted for 1 stade, the length of the stadium(192m). The other races were a 2-stade race (384 m.), and a long-distance run which ranged from 7 to 24 stades (1,344 m. to 4,608 m.).The fourth type of race involved runners wearing full amor, which was 2-4 stade race (384 m. to 768 m.), used to build up speed and stamina for military purposes. On other days, wrestling, boxing, and the pancratium, a combination of the two, were held. In wrestling, the aim was to throw the opponent to the ground three times, on either his hip, back or shoulder. In ancient Greek wrestling biting and genital holds were illegal.

    32. Boxing became more and more brutal; at first the pugilists wound straps of soft leather over their fingers as a means of deadening the blows, but in later times hard leather, sometimes weighted with metal, was used. In the pancratium, the most rigorous of the sports, the contest continued until one or the other of the participants acknowledged defeat. Horse-racing, in which each entrant owned his horse, was confined to the wealthy but was nevertheless a popular attraction. The course was 6 laps of the track, with separate races for whereupon the rider would have no stirrups. It was only wealthy people that could pay for such training, equipment, and feed of both the rider and the horses. So whichever horse won it was not the rider who was awarded the Olive wreath but the owner. There were also Chariot races, that consisted of both 2-horse and 4-horse chariot races, with separate races for chariots drawn by foals. There was also a race was between carts drawn by a team of 2 mules, which was 12 laps of the stadium track.

    33. OLIMPIK – upacarasembahTuhan Zeus di Athena

    34. PesertaOlimpik….. Hanyalelaki. Mengapa?

    35. TAMADUN ROM

    36. CUBA INGAT….. Jelaskan ciri-ciri demokrasi di Athens. (8 markah)

    37. Apakahperbezaansistemsosialantaramasyarakat Athens denganmasyarakat Sparta?(8 markah)

    38. Sebagaiseorangrakyat Malaysia, bagaimanakahsistemdemokrasidijalankandinegaraini?(4 markah)

    39. TAMADUN ROM

    40. ASPEK PENINGKATAN TAMADUN: T U K E S A H DAPAT FULUS TAPI BUAT SAMPAH SARAP • PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN • PERUNDANGAN • PERLUASAN KUASA • PENINGKATAN EKONOMI • PENINGKATAN SOSIAL PENDIDIKAN FALSAFAH SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI SENI BINA BAHASA & SASTERA SISTEM SOSIAL

    41. PEMERINTAHAN & PENTADBIRAN ROM

    42. PERUBAHAN PENTADBIRAN PEMERINTAHAN ROM DIAMBILALIH OLEH JULIUS CAESAR

    43. UNDANG2 PAPAN DUA BELAS/TWELVE TABLES PERUNDANGAN ROM

    44. PERLUASAN KUASA

    45. EMPAYAR ROM di bawah pentadbiran AUGUSTUS CAESAR

    46. PENDIDIKAN DI ROM