vegetation and population density in urban and suburban areas in the u s a l.
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Vegetation and Population Density in Urban and Suburban Areas in the U.S.A. Francesca Pozzi Center for International Earth Science Information Network Columbia University New York, USA Christopher Small Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University New York, USA.

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vegetation and population density in urban and suburban areas in the u s a

Vegetation and Population Density in Urban and Suburban Areas in the U.S.A.

Francesca Pozzi

Center for International Earth Science Information Network

Columbia University

New York, USA

Christopher Small

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

Columbia University

New York, USA

Istanbul, 11-13 June 2002

objectives
Objectives
  • Characterize urban areas based on demographic and physical characteristics:
    • Population Density
    • Vegetation Abundance
  • Examine consistency of relationship between the two variables in the USA
  • Compare with existing land cover classification (USGS)
  • Can this help us find alternative classification systems for urban areas?
case study the usa
Case Study: The USA
  • 6 cities with different geographic location, physical environment and urban growth dynamics

Atlanta

Chicago

Los Angeles

New York

Phoenix

Seattle

data population density
Data: Population Density
  • 1990 US Census Bureau population counts at the block level (Spatial and tabular data)
  • Density in people/km2
  • Data reprojected to UTM,
  • Rasterized to 30 m,
  • Co-registred to Landsat

New York City

data vegetation abundance
Data: Vegetation Abundance
  • Landsat TM data, circa 1990
  • Spectral reflectance of many urban areas can be described as linear mixing of:
    • Low albedo
    • High albedo
    • Vegetation
  • Linear un-mixing
  • Fraction images showing areal % of each endmember within each pixel (0 to 1)
  • Validation with IKONOS, accuracy within 10%

Vegetation Fraction (White = 0, Dark Green = 1)

data usgs national land cover dataset
Data: USGS National Land Cover Dataset
  • Based on Landsat TM data
  • Nominal-1992 acquisitions
  • Modified Anderson LULC Classification System
  • Selected 3 “Developed” classes:
    • Low Intensity Residential
    • High Intensity Residential
    • Commercial/Industrial/Transportation

USGS NLCD “Developed” classes (Light orange = LIR,

Orange = HIR, Red = CIT)

analysis
Analysis
  • Analysis of population distributions across the entire U.S.
    • Demographic Classification
  • Quantification of the relationship between population density and vegetation fraction
    • Bivariate distributions
    • Marginal distributions
  • Comparison with USGS NLCD Classes
    • Distributions of areal extent of each USGS class as a function of population density and vegetation fraction
population density distribution in the u s
Population Density Distribution in the U.S.
  • Multimodal Distribution
  • Modes are:
    • Rural: pop. dens. <100
    • Suburban: 100 <pop.dens. < 10,000
    • Urban: pop. dens >10,000

people/km2

  • Grey line: Western US (west of the 90 ° W)
  • Black line: Eastern US
demographic classification
Demographic Classification

Population Density

Example: portion of Chicago

3 Classes of population density  Demographic Classification

Overlay with vegetation fraction

Blue: Rural

Green: Suburban

Red: Urban

Demographic Classification

Vegetation Fraction

bivariate distributions
Bivariate Distributions

Distributions of people as functions of Population Density and Vegetation Fraction

Legend: warmer colors = higher numbers of people on Log scale

comparison with usgs nlcd classes
Comparison with USGS NLCD Classes
  • Distributions of areal extent of each USGS “Developed” class as functions of population density and vegetation fraction
  • Red: High Intensity Residential
  • Green: Low Intensity Residential
  • Blue: Commercial/Industrial/Transportation
comparison with usgs nlcd classes14
Comparison with USGS NLCD Classes
  • Visual comparison between Demographic Classification and USGS NLCD “Developed” Classes
  • Legend:
    • Blue: Rural/CIT
    • Green: Suburban/LIR
    • Red: Urban/HIR
  • Cities:
    • Top: Chicago
    • Middle: New York
    • Bottom: Los Angeles
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Population density distribution in the U.S. demographic classification (urban/suburban/rural)
  • Vegetation cover is the most consistent spectral characteristics in suburban areas
  • Spectral heterogeneity  wide range of vegetation fractions in demographically urban and suburban areas
  • Not possible to consistently characterize urban and suburban areas in the U.S. based on reflectance characteristics at Landsat resolutions
what next
What next?
  • Emphasize results on quantitative characterization of vegetation abundance as means to provide physical basis for comparison of urban environments
  • Explore classification schemes based on spectral heterogeneity at multiple pixel scales, supplemented by auxiliary data sources
  • Demographic Classification for the year 2000 and urban sprawl analysis
thank you

Thank you!

fpozzi@ciesin.columbia.edu

http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/urban_rs