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Vibrio cholera. Helicobacter pylori. Campylobacter jejuni & C. coli Morphology & Identification Gram negative comma, S shapes motile with one polar flagellum. Culture and Cultural Characteristics Microaerophilic, grow at 42c, Skirrows medium. Pathogenesis & Pathology Clinical Findings

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Vibrio cholera

Helicobacter pylori


Campylobacter jejuni & C. coli

Morphology & Identification

Gram negative comma, S shapes motile with one polar flagellum.

Culture and Cultural Characteristics

Microaerophilic, grow at 42c, Skirrows medium.

Pathogenesis & Pathology

Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

C. Fetus

Other Campylobacters

Helicobacter pylori

Gram negative rods motile with multiple polar flagella, microaerophilic, oxidase positive.

Media: Skirrows, chocolate agar.

Pathogenesis & Pathology

Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests





Haemophilus,Bordetella, & Brucella

Group of small gram negative rods that require enriched media, usually containing blood or its derivatives, for isolation.

1- Haemophilus influenzae

Morphology and Identification

Short 1.5um capsulated coccobacilli and short rods.

Culture & Growth Characteristics

X & V factors. Chocolate agar.

Antigenic Structure


Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

A- Specimens

B- Direct Identification

C- Culture


Treatment / Epidemiology, Prevention, & Control.


Haemophilus aegyptius

H. Aphrophilus

H. Ducreyi

Causes chancroid(soft chancer)

The Bordetellae

Several species

Bordetella pertussis

Morphology and Identification

Pathogenesis and Pathology

Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests


Treatment / Prevention, Epidemiology & Control.

B. Parapertussis

B. bronchoseptica


The Brucellae

Obligate parasites of animals and humans and characteristically located intracellularly.

Morphologically and Identification

Short rods and coccobacilli gram negative 1.2 um in length.

Culture & Cultural Characteristics

Pathogenesis and Pathology

Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

A- Specimens


C- Serology




Prevention , & Control

yersinia francisella pasteurella
Yersinia, Francisella, & Pasteurella

Yersinia Pestis

Morphology & Identification

Gram negative rods with bipolar staining with special stains.

Pathogenesis and Pathology

Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

Treatment / Epidemiology & Control

Yersinia enterocolitica & Y. pseudotuberculosis

Francisella tularemia



P. multocida

infections caused by anaerobic bacteria
Infections Caused by Anaerobic Bacteria

The infections are usually polymicrobial caused by anaerobic, aerobes and facultative anaerobes. Anaerobic bacteria are present as normal flora on the skin and mucosal surfaces and in high concentration in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Infection occurs when contamintion of normal sterile body sites with aerobic and anaerobic bacteria occurs

Physiology & Growth Conditions of Anaerobic Bacteria.

Anaerobic Bacteria in Human Infections.

Gram – Negative anaerobes

A- Gram Negative Bacilli

1- Bacteroides

2- Prevotella

3- Porphyromonas

4- Fusobacteria

B- Gram-Negative Cocci


anaerobic bacteria
Anaerobic Bacteria

Gram-Positive Anaerobes

A- Gram-Positive Bacilli

1- Actinomyces


2- Propionibacterium

4- Eubacterium, Bifidobacterium, and Arachenia

5- Clostridium

B- Gram-Positive Cocci


Pathogenesis of Anaerobic Infections

Polymicrobial Nature of Anaerobic Infections

Diagnosis of Anaerobic Infections

Treatment of Anaerobic Infections

legionella unusual bacterial pathogens
Legionella & Unusual Bacterial Pathogens

Legionella Pneumophilia

Morphology & Identification

Gram negative fastidious rods 0.5-1 um wide & 2-50 um long, poorly stained by gram stain.

Culture and Cultural Characteristics

Pathology And Pathogenesis

Clinical Findings

Laboratory Diagnosis

Treatment / Epidemiology & Control

Bacteria That Cause Vaginosis

Gardenella vaginalis


Streptobacillus moniliformis

Bartonella bacilliformis, B- henselae, B. Quintana.

Calymatobacterium(Donovania) granulomatis

Whipples Disease


Rod-shaped aerobic bacteria, not stained by gram stain

Three species cause tuberculosis in human:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

M. Bovis

M. Africanum

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Morphology and Identification

Thin straight rods o.4x3 um

Culture & Growth Characteristics

Pathogenesis & Pathology

Primary Infection &Reaction Types of Tuberculosis.

Immunity & Hypersensitivity.

Clinical Findings

Tuberculin Test

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests.


Epidemiology/ Prevention & Control

mycobacterium avium complex mac or mai
Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC or MAI)

Other Mycobacteria

Mycobacterium laprae

Discovered by Hansen in 1873.

Clinical Findings

Lepromatous type.

Tuberculoid type.




Prevention & Control.


Spirochetes &Other Spiral Microorganisms

Large heterogeneous group of spiral motile bacteria. Two families

1- Spirochaetaceae: Three free living genera.

2- Treponemataceae: Three human pathogens – Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira.

Treponema pallidum

Morphology & Identification

Slender spirals o.2um wide & 5-15um length. Motile.

Culture & Growth Characteristics

Pathogenesis, Pathology, & Clinical Findings

A- Acquired Syphilis: Primary, secondary, & tertiary.

B- Congenital Syphilis

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

A- Specimens

B- Darkfield examination

C- Immunofluorescence

D- Serology


Primary syphilis Secondary syphilis

Papules Tertiary syphilis

congenital syphilis i early
Congenital syphilisI. Early

Runny nose (rhinitis) known as snuffles, a macular rash and

mucus patches


Hutchinson's teeth - peg-shaped upper incisors

Frontal bosses and saddle nose

  • Late congenital syphilis
    • Gumma - thin, atrophic scar from a previous gumma
t pallidum

1- Nontreponemal antigen tests


B- Complement fixation test(Wassermann, Kolmer).

2- Treponemal antibody tests.

A- Fluorescent treponemal antibody.

B- Hemagglutination test.



Epidemiology / Prevention, & Control.

Diseases Related to Syphilis




Rabbit Syphilis

T. pallidum
borrelia recurrentis relapsing fever
Borrelia recurrentis - Relapsing fever

Morphology & Identification

Irregular spirals 10-30 um long &o.3 um wide.


Pathology, Pathogenesis, & Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests

Treatment/ prevention, epidemiology & Control.


Morphology & Identification


Pathogenesis, & Clinical Findings

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests.

Treatment/ prevention, epidemiology & Control.

mycoplasmas cell wall defective bacteria
Mycoplasmas & Cell-Wall-Defective Bacteria
  • Mycoplamas
  • >150 species. At least 15 are of human origin. Four are oif primary importance.
  • Morphology & Identification

Culture & Growth Characteristics

Mycoplasmal Infection

Diagnostic Laboratory Tests.


Treatment/ prevention, epidemiology & Control.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae & Atypical pneumonia

Pathogenesis & Clinical Findings

Laboratory tests

Treatment/ prevention, epidemiology & Control.

M. Hominis

Ureaplasma urealyticum

M. Genitalium

L forms

rickettsial diseases
Rickettsial Diseases

Rickettsiae are pleomorphic obligate intracellular coccobacilli, short rods(o.3x1-2 um)or cocci(o.3 um in diameter). Are not stained by gram stain but are visible under the light microscope using Giemsa stain or other stains. Rickettsiae can be cultured in living tissue only. Yolk sac of embryonated chick eggs and tissue culture.

Mode of Transmission of Rickettsial Diseases

All rickettsiae need an arthropod vector for their transmission except Q fever.

Clinical Findings

Rickettsial infections are characterized by fever, headache, malaise, prostration, skin rash, and enlargement of spleen and liver. However, no skin lesions in Q fever.

A- Typhus Group:

1- Epidemic typhus

2- Endemic typhus

B - Spotted fever Group

C- Scrub typhus

D- Q Fever




Small cells o.3 um in diameter, obligate intrcellular parasites as they lack mechanisms for the production of metabolic energy which is provided by the host. Their cell wall resemble that of gram negative bacteria.


Three species

1- Chlamydia trachomatis

A- Trachoma

B- Genital Infection & Inclusion Conjunctivitis.

C- Respiratory Tract Infection

D- lymphogranuloma venereum

2- C. pneumoniae & Respiratory Infections.

3- C. psittaci & psittacosis(Ornithosis).