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APUSH: Market Revolution 1815-1840. Mr. Weber Room 217. Activator. Chapter 9 reading test: 15 minutes 1. What were the major social effects of the market revolution? 2. What revolutionary changes did American slavery undergo during this period?

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activator
Activator
  • Chapter 9 reading test: 15 minutes
    • 1. What were the major social effects of the market revolution?
    • 2. What revolutionary changes did American slavery undergo during this period?
    • 3. What role did immigration play in the market revolution?
    • 4. How does the Second Great Awakening relate to the market revolution?
agenda
Agenda
  • Activator, agenda, and objective (20 minutes)
  • Benchmark study strategy: matching game (30 minutes)
  • The Market Revolution lecture (30 minutes)
  • Teaching each other our DBQs (30 minutes)
  • Exit ticket and homework (5 minutes)
objective
Objective
  • AP Topic #6. Transformation of the Economy and Society in Antebellum America
    • The transportation revolution and creation of a national market economy
    • Beginnings of industrialization and changes in social and class structures
    • Immigration and nativist reaction
    • Planters, yeoman farmers, and slaves in the cotton South
benchmark review matching
Benchmark Review: Matching
  • In teams of two.
  • Match the key term/event in bold with the appropriate definition or phrase.
  • You may use your notes and the book but time is of the essence.
  • First team finished will receive extra credit on the exam.
the market revolution
The Market Revolution
  • The New Economy
    • Roads and steamboats
      • Improvements in transportation lowered costs and linked farmers to markets.
      • Improved water transportation most dramatically increased the speed and lowered the expense of commerce.
transportation and communication
Transportation and Communication
  • The Erie Canal
    • Completed in 1825 and made NYC a major trading port.
    • State-funded canal as example for funding for internal improvements.
  • Railroads and Telegraphs
    • Railroads opened the frontier to settlement
    • Telegraph introduced a communication revolution
    • Improvements in transportation and communication made possible the rise of the West.
    • People traveled in groups to clear land and establish communities.
    • Squatters set up farms on unoccupied land.
the cotton kingdom
The Cotton Kingdom
  • The market revolution and westward expansion heightened the nation’s sectional divisions.
  • Rise of cotton production came with Eli Whitney’s cotton gin.
  • The cotton gin revolutionized American slavery.
  • Historians estimate that around 1 million slaves were shifted old slave states to deep south between 1800-1860
  • Slave trading became organized business.
the market society
The Market Society
  • Commercial farmers
    • The Norwest became a region with an integrated economy of commercial farms and manufacturing cities.
    • Farmers grew crops and raised livestock for sale.
    • The cities in the East provided credit and a market.
    • New technologies:
      • Steel plow
      • Reaper
the factory system
The Factory System
  • Samuel Slater establishes first factory in 1790
  • First large scale factories in 1814 in Waltham, Mass. Then Lowell, Mass.
  • Nature of work shifted from skilled artisan to that of factory worker.
  • Mass production of interchangeable parts assembled into standardized products.
  • New England textile mills relied primarily on female and child labor.
  • South lagged behind the North in terms of factory production.
growth of immigration
Growth of Immigration
  • Economic expansion fueled demand for labor
  • German and Irish settled primarily in Northern cities.
  • Reasons for migration (push and pull factors)
  • Filled mainly low-wage unskilled jobs
nativism
Nativism
  • Racist reaction to immigration
  • Response to growing Catholic presence (Irish)
  • Nativists blamed immigrants for:
    • Urban crime
    • Political corruption
    • Alcohol abuse
    • Undercutting wages
individualism
Individualism
  • Freedom linked to availability of land (Manifest Destiny)
  • National myth and ideology surrounding the “West”
  • Transcendentalists responded to competitive materialists individualism of emergent capitalism with idea of self-realization through which individuals remake themselves and their own lives
    • Ralph Emerson (“Self-Reliance”)
the second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening
  • Added religious element to celebration of individual self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination.
  • Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in upstate N.Y.
  • Democratized Christianity
  • Promoted doctrine of human free will
  • Used opportunities of market revolution to spread their message
limits of prosperity
Limits of Prosperity
  • Opportunities for the “self-made man”
    • Jacob Astor and Heratio Alger
  • Market revolution produced a new middle class.
  • Barred from schools and other public facilities most free African Americans and women were excluded from economic opportunities.
cult of domesticity
Cult of Domesticity
  • New definition of femininity emerged based on values of love, friendship, and mutual obligation
  • Virtue became personal moral quality
  • Women should find freedom fulfilling their duties in their sphere
early labor movement
Early Labor Movement
  • Some felt that the market revolution reduced their freedom
  • Economic swings widened gap between rich and poor
  • First workingman’s parties est. 1820s
  • Strikes were common by the 1830s
  • Wage-earners evoked “liberty” when calling for improvements in the workplace
  • Some described wage labor as slavery: “wage slaves”
sharing our dbqs
Sharing our DBQs
  • Form a reading group and share out your DBQ’s from the “securing the republic,” 1790-1815, period.
  • Take notes and ask questions for clarification.
voices of freedom
Voices of Freedom
  • Pick a quote from Emerson’s “The American Scholar” and explicate it.
  • Pick a second quote from Orestes Brownson’s “The Laboring Classes” and explicate it.
  • Prepare to share your quotes and explanations on Thursday in class.
exit ticket and homework
Exit ticket and homework
  • 1. How was it to read the chapter before hearing lecture about it?
  • Homework:
  • Explicate 2 quotes from the Voices of Freedom for Thursday.
  • Benchmark Thursday.
  • Begin reading Chapter 10 on Democracy in America 1815-1840 for next Tuesday.
  • Prepare for Friday’s debate on Jacksonian Democracy